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런던

London
런던
Heron TowerTower 4230 St Mary AxeLeadenhall BuildingWillis BuildingLloyds BuildingCanary Wharf20 Fenchurch StreetCity of LondonLondon UndergroundElizabeth TowerTrafalgar SquareLondon EyeTower BridgeRiver ThamesLondon montage. Clicking on an image in the picture causes the browser to load the appropriate article.
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위에서 시계 방향으로:카나리 워프를 배경으로 한 전경의 런던 도시, 트라팔가 광장, 런던 아이, 타워 브리지, 엘리자베스 타워 앞에 있는 런던 지하철 라운드텔
London is located in the United Kingdom
London
런던
영국 내 소재지
London is located in England
London
런던
영국 내 소재지
London is located in Europe
London
런던
유럽 내 소재지
London is located in Earth
London
런던
런던(지구)
좌표:51°30′26″n 0°7~39°W/51.50722°N 0.12750°W/ 51.50722, -0.14050좌표: 51°30º26°N 0°7【39W / 51.50722°N 0.12750°W / 51.50722, -0.12750
주권국영국
나라잉글랜드
지역런던
그레이터런던
런던 시
로마인이 정착했다.AD 47; 1975년 전(47)[2]
론디늄으로서
지역런던과 32개
정부
• 종류단일 입헌군주제시장직심의회
• 본체그레이터런던 오소리티
사디크시장 (L)
런던 의회
• 런던 어셈블리14개 선거구
영국 의회73개 선거구
지역
• 합계[A]607 평방 밀리 (1,572 km2)
• 도시형
671.0 평방 밀리 (1,162.9 km2)
• 메트로
3,236 평방 밀리(8,382 km2)
런던 시1.12 평방 밀리 (2.902 km)
대런던606 평방 밀리 (1,569 km2)
승진36 피트 (11 m)
인구.
(표준)[5]
• 합계[A]9,002,488[1]
• 밀도14,670/160 mi (5,666/km2)
도시형
9,950,000
메트로
14,257,962[4] ( 번째)
런던 시
8,706(67위)
대런던
9,425,622
반의어런던인
GVA(2020)
• 합계5040억파운드
(5660억유로)
• 1인당£55,974
(€62,913)
시간대UTC(그리니치 표준시)
• 여름 (DST)UTC+1(영국 여름 시간)
우편 번호 영역
22개 영역
지역 번호
  • 020, 01322, 01689, 01708, 01737, 01895, 01923, 01959, 01992
예산.193억7600만파운드
250억달러[7]
국제공항런던 내부:
히스로(LHR)
시구정촌(LCY)
런던 외곽:
Gatwick(LGW)
스탠스테드(STN)
루톤(LTN)
사우스엔드(SEN)
고속 교통 시스템런던 지하철
경찰메트로폴리탄(대런던의 카운티)
시티오브런던(시티오브런던 평방마일)
구급차런던
런던
GeoTLD.disclosed(비활성화)
웹 사이트www.london.gov.uk Edit this at Wikidata

런던은 인구 [9]9백만 명이 조금 넘는 영국과 영국의 수도이자 가장 큰 도시입니다.영국 남동부 템즈강 북해 하구 50마일(80km) 지점에 있으며 2000년 동안 [10]주요 정착촌이었다.고대 중심이자 금융 중심지였던 런던시로마인들론디니움으로 설립했으며 중세 [note 1][11]도시와 가까운 경계를 유지하고 있다.19세기 [12]이후, "런던"이라는 이름은 역사적으로 그레이터런던[14][note 2][15]통치하는 미들섹스, 에식스, 서리, 켄트,[13] 그리고 허트포드셔카운티로 나뉘어진 이 중심부 주변의 대도시를 가리키기도 했다.런던 시의 서쪽에 있는 웨스트민스터 시는 수세기 동안 국가 정부의회를 개최해 왔다.

런던은 세계 주요 글로벌 [16]도시 중 하나로 예술, 엔터테인먼트, 패션, 상업 및 금융, 교육, 의료, 미디어, 과학기술, 관광, 교통 및 [17][18]통신에 큰 영향력을 행사하고 있습니다.GDP(2017년 8016억 6천만 유로)는 유럽 [19]최대의 도시 경제로 세계 주요 금융 중심지 중 하나입니다.2021년 현재, 런던은 모든 [20]도시 중에서 가장 많은 백만장자를 보유하고 있다.유럽에서 가장 많은 고등 교육 [21]기관이 집중되어 있는 이 대학에는 자연응용 과학 분야의 임페리얼 칼리지 런던, 사회 과학 분야의 런던 경제 대학 및 종합 [22]대학 런던이 포함됩니다.런던은 세계에서[23] 가장 바쁜 도시 공항 시스템을 가지고 있고 런던 지하철은 세계에서 [24]가장 오래된 고속 교통 시스템입니다.런던은 세계에서 방문객이 가장 많은 도시 중 하나이며 모든 [25]도시 중에서 가장 많은 5성급 호텔이 있는 곳입니다.

런던의 다양한 문화는 300개 이상의 [26]언어를 포함한다.2018년 중반 대런던 인구는 약 900만[5] 명으로 영국 인구의[28] 13.4%, 영국 인구의 16% 이상을 차지하며 유럽에서 세 번째로 인구가 많은 [27]도시가 되었다.대런던 빌딩 지역은 이스탄불, 모스크바, 파리에 이어 유럽에서 네 번째로 인구가 많은 지역으로 2011년 [29][30]인구조사에서 약 980만 명이 살고 있다.런던 대도시 지역은 이스탄불과 모스크바에 이어 유럽에서 세 번째로 인구가 많은 지역으로 2016년에는 [note 3][4][31]약 1,400만 명이 거주하면서 런던에 거대 도시 지위를 부여했다.

런던에는 런던 타워, 큐 가든, 웨스트민스터 궁전, 웨스트민스터 사원, 세인트 마가렛 교회 등 4개의 세계유산이 있으며, 영국 왕립천문대, 그리니치 천문대가 본초 자오선 (경도 0°)과 그리니치 [32]표준시를 정의하는 그리니치의 역사적인 정착지가 있습니다.다른 랜드마크로는 버킹엄 궁전, 런던 아이, 피카딜리 서커스, 세인트 대성당, 타워 브리지, 트라팔가 광장이 있다.이곳에는 대영박물관, 국립미술관, 자연사박물관, 테이트모던, 영국도서관, 그리고 수많은 웨스트엔드 [33]극장을 포함한 많은 박물관, 갤러리, 도서관, 문화공간이 있습니다.런던에서 열리는 중요한 연례 스포츠 행사에는 FA컵 결승(Wembley Stadium에서 매년 개최), 윔블던 테니스 선수권 대회, 런던 마라톤 등이 있습니다.2012년, 런던은 세 번의 하계 올림픽[34]개최한 최초의 도시가 되었다.

지형학

런던은 기원후 1세기에 이미 증명된 고대 이름으로, 보통 라틴어 형태의 론디니움으로,[35] 예를 들어 서기 65/70-80년에 기원한 도시에서 발견된 손으로 쓴 로마 서판에는 론디니오(Londinio,[36] 런던에서)라는 단어가 포함되어 있다.

오랜 세월 동안, 그 이름은 많은 신화적인 설명들을 끌어 모았습니다.가장 먼저 증명된 [35][37]것은 1136년경에 쓰여진 몬머스의 역사책인 브리타니아나온다.

그 이름에 대한 현대의 과학적 분석은 라틴어(보통 론디늄), 고대 영어(보통 룬든), 웨일스어(보통 룬데인) 등 초기 출처에서 발견된 다른 형태의 기원을 설명해야 한다.그 이름은 공통 브라이소닉 언어에서 유래했다는 것에 동의한다; 최근의 연구는 잃어버린 켈트어 형태의 이름을 *런던존이나 비슷한 것으로 재구성하는 경향이 있다.이것은 라틴어로 론디니움으로 개작되었고 고대 [38]영어로 차용되었다.

일반적인 브라이튼 형태의 지형학은 논의되고 있다.눈에 띄는 은 1998년 리처드 코츠가 켈트 이전의 고대 유럽어 *(p)lowonida에서 유래했다는 주장으로, 이는 "강폭이 너무 넓어서 둑에 닿을 수 없다"는 것이다.코츠는 이것이 런던을 흐르는 템스 의 일부에 붙여진 이름이라고 주장했는데, 여기서 이 마을은 *로오니돈존이라는 [39]켈트족의 이름을 얻었다.하지만, 대부분의 작품들은 평범한 켈트인의 기원을 받아들였습니다.최근의 연구는 인도-유럽조어 어근 *lend-h('sink, cause to sink')의 켈트어 파생어인 *-injo- 또는 *-onjo-(지명을 형성하는 데 사용됨)에 대한 설명을 선호한다.Peter Schrijver는 그 이름이 원래 "홍수가 나는 [40][38]곳"을 의미한다고 구체적으로 제안했다.

1889년까지, "런던"이라는 이름은 공식적으로 런던 시에만 적용되었지만, 그 이후로는 런던 백작령그레이터 [41]런던을 지칭하기도 했다.

서면으로 "London"은 "LDN"[42][43]계약되는 경우가 있습니다. 이러한 사용은 SMS 언어에서 유래하며 소셜 미디어 사용자 프로필에 별칭 또는 핸들에 접미사를 붙여 자주 나타납니다.

역사

선사 시대

1993년, 보크홀 [44]다리 상류 남쪽 해안에서 청동기 시대의 다리 유적이 발견되었다.이것은 템즈강을 건너거나 지금은 사라진 섬에 도달했다.그 목재들 중 두 개는 기원전 [44]1750-1285년으로 추정되는 방사성 탄소였다.

2010년, 보크홀 다리 [46]하류에서 템즈강 남쪽 해안에서 기원전 [45]4800-4500년으로 추정되는 큰 목재 구조의 기초가 발견되었다.중석기 구조의 기능은 불분명하다.두 건물 모두 테임즈강 남쪽 둑에 있으며, 지금은 지하에 있는 에프라강[46]템즈강으로 흘러들어간다.

로만 런던

1300년에도 도시는 여전히 로마의 성벽 안에 갇혀 있었다.

브라이소닉 정착촌이 이 지역에 산재했다는 증거에도 불구하고,[47] 최초의 주요 정착촌은 서기 43년 침략 후 약 4년[2] 후에 로마인에 의해 설립되었습니다.이것은 서기 61년 부디카 여왕이 이끄는 이케니 부족이 습격하여 [48]불태울 때까지 지속되었다.다음 계획된 론디니움은 100년에 콜체스터를 제치고 브리타니아 지방의 수도가 되었다.2세기 로마 런던의 인구는 약 60,[49]000명이었다.

앵글로색슨 및 바이킹 시대의 런던

5세기 초 로마 통치가 붕괴되면서, 런던은 수도가 되었고, 로마 문명[50]450년까지 세인트 마틴 인 더 필즈 주변에서 계속되었지만, 성벽으로 둘러싸인 론디니움은 사실상 버려졌다.약 500년부터, 룬덴위치로 알려진 앵글로색슨인 정착촌은 고대 로마 [51]도시의 약간 서쪽에서 발전했다.약 680년이 되자 도시는 다시 주요 항구가 되었지만, 대규모 생산의 증거는 거의 없다.820년대부터 바이킹의 반복적인 공격은 쇠퇴를 가져왔다.851년과 886년에 성공하고 994년에 마지막으로 [52]퇴짜를 맞는 등 세 가지가 기록되어 있다.

1471년 란카스트리아의 런던 공성전은 요크주의 샐리의 공격을 받았다.

바이킹들은 886년 덴마크 군벌, 구스룸웨스트 색슨 왕 알프레드 대왕에 의해 공식적으로 합의된 바이킹의 침략에 의해 부과된 정치적, 지리적 통제 구역으로서 대략 런던에서 체스터에 이르는 영국 동부와 북부 대부분에 다넬로를 적용했다.앵글로색슨 연대기에는 알프레드가 886년에 런던을 "철거"시켰다고 기록되어 있다.고고학적 연구는 이것이 룬덴위치를 버리고 고대 로마의 성벽 안에서 삶과 무역의 부활을 포함한다는 것을 보여준다.그 후 런던은 [53]약 950년에 극적으로 증가할 때까지 천천히 성장하였다.

11세기까지, 런던은 확실히 영국에서 가장 큰 도시였다.웨스트민스터 사원은 참회왕 에드워드에 의해 로마네스크 스타일로 재건된 유럽에서 가장 웅장한 교회 중 하나였다.윈체스터앵글로색슨계 영국의 수도였지만, 이때부터 런던은 외국 무역상들의 주요 포럼이 되었고 전쟁 시 방어 기지가 되었다.프랭크 스텐튼의 견해: "그것은 자원을 가지고 있었고,[54][55] 그것은 국가 자본에 걸맞은 존엄성과 정치적 자의식을 급속히 발전시키고 있었다."

중세 시대

그림에서 볼 수 있는 웨스트민스터 사원은 세계문화유산이며 런던에서 가장 오래되고 중요한 건물 중 하나이다.

헤이스팅스 전투에서 승리한 후, 노르망디 공작 윌리엄은 1066년 [56]크리스마스에 새로 완공된 웨스트민스터 사원에서 영국 왕위에 올랐다.윌리엄은 [57]주민들을 위협하기 위해 런던 을 지었는데, 이는 영국에서 최초로 도시의 남동쪽 구석에 돌로 재건한 것이다.1097년 윌리엄 2세는 같은 이름의 수도원 근처에 웨스트민스터 홀을 짓기 시작했다.그것은 새로운 [58][59]웨스트민스터 궁전의 기초가 되었다.

12세기에는 영국 왕실 궁정을 따라다니던 중앙 정부 기관이 크기와 정교함을 키워 웨스트민스터에서 점차 고정화되었지만, 대부분의 경우 윈체스터에서 옮겨온 왕실 재무부는 타워에 안착하게 되었다.웨스트민스터가 진정한 정부의 수도로 발전하는 동안, 그 뚜렷한 이웃인 런던시는 영국의 가장 큰 도시이자 주요 상업 중심지로 남았고 런던이라는 독특한 행정 하에 번창했다.1100년에는 인구가 18,000명이었고 1300년에는 거의 100,[60]000명으로 늘어났다.재앙은 런던 인구의 거의 [61]3분의 1을 잃었던 14세기 중반에 흑사병의 형태로 일어났다.런던은 1381년 [62]농민 반란의 중심지였다.

런던은 또한 1290년 에드워드 1세에 의해 추방되기 전까지 영국의 유대인 인구의 중심지였다.유대인에 대한 폭력은 1190년에 일어났는데, 그 때 새로운 왕이 그들의 [63]대관식에 모습을 드러낸 후 그들의 학살을 명령했다는 소문이 돌았다.1264년 제2차 남작 전쟁시몬 드 몽포르의 반란군은 [64]빚 기록을 압류하려다 500명의 유대인을 살해했다.

초기 근대

1593년 런던 지도.템즈강을 가로지르는 다리는 하나뿐이지만, 강의 남쪽 둑에 있는 사우스워크의 일부가 개발되었습니다.

튜더 시대종교개혁개신교로의 점진적인 변화를 가져왔다.런던의 많은 재산이 교회에서 개인 소유로 넘어갔고,[65] 이것은 도시의 무역과 사업을 가속화시켰다.1475년, 한자 동맹Stalhof 또는 Steelyard라고 불리는 영국의 주요 무역 기지 (Kontor)를 런던에 세웠다.1853년까지 남아있던 루벡, 브레멘, 함부르크한자 도시들이 남동부 [66]철도에 그 부동산을 팔았다.모직물은 14세기/15세기 런던에서 옷을 벗지 않은 채 저지대 해안으로 운송되었고,[67] 그곳에서 필수품으로 여겨졌다.

그러나 영국의 해양기업은 북서유럽의 바다를 넘어서 거의 도달하지 못했다.이탈리아와 지중해로 가는 상업 항로는 보통 앤트워프와 알프스 산맥을 통과했다; 지브롤터 해협을 통해 영국을 오가는 배는 이탈리아나 라구산일 가능성이 높다.1565년 1월 네덜란드가 영국 선박으로 재개항하면서 [68]상업활동이 활발해졌다.왕립거래소[69]설립되었습니다.신대륙으로의 무역이 확대되면서 상업주의가 성장했고 동인도 회사와 같은 독점 무역상들이 설립되었습니다.런던은 북해의 주요 항구가 되었고, 영국과 해외에서 이주자들이 왔다.인구는 1530년 약 50,000명에서 1605년 [65]약 225,000명으로 증가했다.

16세기에 윌리엄 셰익스피어와 그의 동시대인들은 영국 르네상스 극장 기간 동안 런던에서 살았다.셰익스피어의 글로브 극장은 1599년 사우스워크에 지어졌다.런던의 무대 공연은 청교도 당국이 1640년대와 [70]1650년대에 극장을 폐쇄하면서 중단되었다.극장에 대한 금지는 1660년 유신 기간 동안 해제되었고 런던에서 가장 오래된 수술극장인 드루리 레인은 1663년 현재의 웨스트 엔드 [71]극장 지구에 문을 열었다.

1603년 튜더 시대가 끝날 때까지 런던은 여전히 좁았다.1605년 [72]11월 5일 웨스트민스터에서 제임스 1세에 대한 암살 시도가 있었다.

1643년경 영국 남북전쟁 중에 계획된 방어선은 도시, 웨스트민스터, 사우스워크, 램베스 및 관련 지역을 포위했다. (Vertue, 1738).

1637년 찰스 1세 정부는 런던 지역의 행정 개혁을 시도했다.이것은 도시공사가 도시 주변 지역의 확장에 대한 관할권과 행정권을 확장하도록 요구하였다.런던의 자유를 축소하려는 영국 정부의 시도와 이러한 추가 지역 관리에 대한 관심 부족 또는 권력을 나눠야 한다는 도시 길드의 우려로 인해, 이 회사의 "대거부"가 발생했는데, 이는 주로 도시의 [73]독특한 정부 지위를 계속 설명하는 결정이다.

영국 남북전쟁에서 런던 시민 대다수는 의회의 대의를 지지했다.브렌트포드와 턴햄 그린 전투에서 정점을 이룬 1642년 왕당파에 의한 초기 진격 후, 런던은 통신선이라고 알려진 방어벽으로 둘러싸였다.이 노선은 최대 20,000명의 사람들에 의해 건설되었고, [74]두 달 안에 완공되었다.이 요새들은 [75]1647년 신모델군이 런던에 들어왔을 때 그들의 유일한 테스트에 실패했고, 같은 [76]해에 의회에 의해 평준화 되었다.

런던은 17세기 [77]초에 질병으로 고통받았고, [78]1665-1666년의 대 페스트(Great Past)로 인해 인구의 5분의 1에 해당하는 100,000명이 사망했습니다.

런던 대화재는 1666년에 도시의 많은 부분을 파괴했다.

런던 대화재는 1666년 도시의 푸딩 레인에서 발생했고 빠르게 [79]목조 건물을 휩쓸었다.재건축은 10년 이상이 걸렸고 [80][81][82]런던시의 측량사로서 박식가 로버트 후크에 의해 감독되었다.1708년 크리스토퍼 의 걸작 세인트 대성당이 완성되었다.조지아 시대 동안, 메이페어와 같은 새로운 구역이 서쪽에 형성되었고 템즈강을 가로지르는 새로운 다리는 남런던의 개발을 장려했다.동쪽에서는 런던항이 하류로 확장되었다.런던의 국제 금융 중심지로서의 발전은 18세기 [83]대부분 동안 성숙했다.

1762년 조지 3세는 이후 75년 동안 증축된 버킹엄 하우스를 취득했다.18세기 동안,[84] 런던은 범죄에 시달렸다고 알려져 있었고, 보우 스트리트 러너스는 1750년 전문 [85]경찰력으로 설립되었다.총 200건 이상의 범죄는 좀도둑질을 [87]포함해 [86]사형에 처해질 수 있었다.1720년대와 30년대에 유행한 전염병으로 도시에서 태어난 대부분의 어린이들이 5번째 [88]생일이 되기 전에 사망하는 것을 보았다.

Fleet Street가 영국 언론의 중심이 되면서, 증가하는 읽고 쓰는 능력과 인쇄기의 발달로 뉴스를 널리 이용할 수 있게 되면서 커피하우스는 아이디어를 토론하는 인기 있는 장소가 되었다.나폴레옹 군대의 암스테르담 침공으로 많은 금융가들이 런던으로 이주하였고 1817년에 첫 번째 국제 문제가 마련되었다.동시에, 영국 해군은 잠재적인 경제적 적들에 대한 주요 억제책으로 작용하면서 세계 최고의 전쟁 함대가 되었다.1846년 옥수수법의 폐지는 특히 네덜란드의 경제력을 약화시키기 위한 것이었다.그 후 런던은 암스테르담을 제치고 국제 금융의 [89][90]중심지가 되었다.Samuel Johnson에 따르면:

런던을 떠나려고 하는 지적인 사람은 전혀 없다.아닙니다, 선생님. 사람은 런던에 싫증이 나면 삶에 싫증이 납니다. 런던에는 삶이 감당할 수 있는 모든 것이 있기 때문입니다.

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근현대 후기

영국의 산업 혁명의 시작과 함께 도시화의 전례 없는 성장이 이루어졌고, 영국의 주요 소매 거리인 하이 스트리트(High Streets)의 수는 급격히 증가했다.[92][93]런던은 약 1831년부터 [94]1925년까지 [95]헥타르당 325명의 인구밀도를 가진 세계에서 가장 큰 도시였습니다.하딩, 하웰 & Co. 같은 상품을 판매하는 상점들이 증가하는 것 외에도, 거리에는 그들의 상품과 서비스를 [92]광고하는 수많은 길거리 판매자들이 있었다.런던의 과밀 상태는 콜레라 전염병으로 [96]이어졌고, 1848년에는 14,000명이, 1866년에는 [97]6,000명이 사망했습니다.교통 체증의 증가는 세계 최초의 지방 도시 철도 네트워크의 탄생으로 이어졌다.Metropolitan Board of Works는 수도와 일부 주변 카운티에서의 인프라 확장을 감독했습니다. 1889년 [98]수도 주변의 카운티 지역에서 런던 카운티 의회가 만들어지면서 폐지되었습니다.

20세기 초반부터 런던과 나머지 영국 시내에서 찻집들이 발견되었고, 1894년 피카딜리에서 번째 찻집 체인을 연 라이온스가 그 [99]길을 이끌었다.피카딜리의 기준과 같은 다방은 참정권 운동 여성들에게 인기 [100]있는 만남의 장소가 되었다.이 도시는 1912년에서 1914년 사이에 웨스트민스터 사원과 세인트 대성당 같은 역사적인 건물들이 [101]폭격을 당한 참사 폭탄 테러와 방화 작전 동안 많은 공격의 표적이 되었다.

제1차 세계대전 중 1914년 8월 런던에서 자원한 영국인 신병
제2차 세계대전 당시 폭격당한 런던 거리

런던은 1차 [102]세계대전에서 독일군에 의해 폭격당했고, 2차 세계대전 동안 독일 공군공습과 다른 폭격으로 3만 명이 넘는 런던인들이 죽었고,[103] 도시 전역의 주택과 다른 건물들이 파괴되었다.

1948년 하계 올림픽은 런던이 여전히 전쟁에서 [104]회복하고 있는 동안 원래의 웸블리 스타디움에서 열렸다.1940년대부터 런던은 자메이카, 인도, 방글라데시,[105] 파키스탄과 같은 영연방 국가들에서 온 많은 이민자들의 본거지가 되었고, 런던은 세계에서 가장 다양한 도시 중 하나가 되었다.1951년 사우스 [106]뱅크에서 영국 축제가 열렸다.1952년의 대 스모그는 1956년의 청정 공기법으로 이어졌고, 이것은 런던이 [107]악명 높았던 "콩 수프 안개"를 종식시켰다.

주로 1960년대 중반부터 시작된 런던은 킹스 로드, 첼시[109],[110] 카너비 스트리트와 관련된 스윙링 런던 하위[108] 문화의 전형으로 전 세계 청소년 문화의 중심이 되었다.펑크 [111]시대에 트렌드 세터의 역할이 되살아났다.1965년 도시의 성장에 따라 런던의 정치적 경계가 확장되었고 새로운 대런던 의회가 만들어졌다.[112]북아일랜드에서 트러블이 발생했을 때, 런던은 1973년 올드 베일리 [114][115]폭격을 시작으로 20년 동안 아일랜드 공화국군 [113]임시군의 공격을 받았다.인종 불평등은 1981년 브릭스턴 [116]폭동으로 두드러졌다.

그레이터런던의 인구는 1939년 860만 명으로 추정되던 것에서 1980년대 [117]680만 명으로 2차 세계대전 이후 수십 년 동안 감소했다.런던의 주요 항구는 하류인 펠릭스토와 틸버리로 이동하였고, 런던 도클랜즈 지역카나리 워프 개발을 포함한 재생의 초점이 되었다.이는 1980년대 [118]국제금융센터로서의 런던의 역할이 높아짐에 따라 입증되었다.템스 장벽은 1980년대에 [119]북해로부터의 조수 해일로부터 런던을 보호하기 위해 완성되었다.

대런던 의회는 1986년에 폐지되었고, 2000년 [120]대런던 당국이 창설될 때까지 런던에는 중앙 행정기관이 없었다.21세기를 맞아 밀레니엄 돔, 런던 아이, 밀레니엄 브릿지가 [121]건설되었다.2005년 7월 6일, 런던2012년 하계 올림픽을 세 [122]번 개최하는 최초의 도시로 선정되었습니다.2005년 7월 7일 런던 지하철 3대와 2층 버스가 연쇄 테러 공격[123]받았다.

2008년 타임지는 런던을 뉴욕시, 홍콩과 함께 나일론콩으로 선정하며 세계에서 가장 영향력 있는 3대 글로벌 [124]도시로 칭송했다.2015년 1월, 그레이터런던의 인구는 863만 명으로 추정되어 1939년 [125]이래 최고치를 기록했다.2016년 유럽연합(EU) 탈퇴 국민투표 당시 영국은 전체가 유럽연합 탈퇴를 결정했지만 런던 선거구 대부분이 [126]잔류투표를 했다.

행정부.

지방 자치 단체

런던시 공사의 문장:아르젠트, 번째 쿼터의 크로스 귤은 마지막 쿼터에 비해 창백한 칼이 위로 올라갑니다; 지지자:양 날개에 붉은 깃발을 마리의 용; 깃발: 용의 날개에는 불길[127] 깃발을 전시하고 있다.

런던 행정은 도시 전체, 전략 계층과 지역 계층이라는 두 개의 계층으로 구성되어 있습니다.도시 전체의 행정은 대런던 당국(GLA)에 의해 조정되며, 지방 행정은 33개의 소규모 [128]기관에 의해 수행됩니다.GLA는 두 개의 선출된 구성 요소로 구성되어 있다: 집행권을 가진 런던 시장과 시장의 결정을 면밀히 검토하고 시장의 예산안을 매년 수용하거나 거부할 수 있는 런던 의회.

GLA의 본부는 뉴햄 시청입니다.2016년부터 시장은 서방 주요 [129][130]수도의 첫 이슬람 시장인 사디크 칸이다.시장의 법정 계획 전략은 [131]2011년에 가장 최근에 개정된 런던 계획으로 발표되었습니다.지방 당국은 32개 런던 자치구시티오브런던 [132]코퍼레이션의 의회이다.그들은 지역 계획, 학교, 사회 복지 사업, 지방 도로 및 쓰레기 수거와 같은 대부분의 지역 서비스를 담당합니다.폐기물 관리와 같은 특정 기능은 공동 약정을 통해 제공됩니다.2009-2010년 런던 의회와 GLA의 총 수익 지출은 220억 파운드(구 147억 파운드, GLA [133]74억 파운드)를 약간 웃돌았다.

런던 소방대는 런던 소방 비상 계획국에 의해 운영되는 그레이터 런던의 법정 소방구조 서비스입니다.그것은 세계에서 [134]세 번째로 큰 소방 서비스이다.National Health Service 앰뷸런스 서비스는 세계에서 [135]가장 큰 무료 응급 구급차 서비스인 LAS(London Em뷸런스 서비스) NHS Trust에 의해 제공됩니다.런던 에어 앰뷸런스 자선단체는 필요한 경우 LAS와 연계하여 운영됩니다.여왕폐하의 해안경비대왕립 국립 구명보트 기관테딩턴 록에서 바다에 [138]이르는 런던 항만 당국의 관할 하에 있는 [136][137]템즈 에서 운영됩니다.

국가 정부

런던은 영국 정부의 소재지이다.다우닝가 10번지에 있는 총리 관저뿐만 아니라 많은 정부 부처들이 웨스트민스터 궁, 특히 화이트홀[139]근거지를 두고 있다.런던 출신 의원(MPS)은 73명으로 국회의 지역구에서 선출된다.2019년 12월 현재 49명이 노동당, 21명이 보수당, 3명이 자유민주당 [140]출신이다.런던의 장관직은 1994년에 만들어졌다.현재 런던 장관은 폴 스컬리 [141]하원의원이다.

폴리싱과 범죄

런던시를 제외한 그레이터런던의 경찰 업무는 런던경찰청이 제공하며 시장은 경찰 및 범죄 담당 시장실(MOPAC)[142][143]을 통해 감독합니다.런던 시에는 자체 경찰력인 런던 [144]경찰이 있습니다.영국 교통경찰내셔널 레일, 런던 지하철, 도클랜드 경전철트램링크 [145]서비스에 대한 경찰 서비스를 담당합니다.국방부 경찰대는 런던의 특수 경찰대로, 일반적으로 일반 대중을 [146]감시하는 데 관여하지 않는다.

범죄율은 런던의 각 지역에 따라 크게 다르다.범죄 수치는 지방 자치 단체[147]구청 차원에서 전국적으로 공개된다.2015년에는 118건의 살인이 발생했는데,[148] 이는 2014년에 비해 25.5% 증가한 수치입니다.런던경찰청은 2000년부터 [149][150]자치구와 구 단위에서 카테고리별로 세부 범죄 수치를 웹사이트에 공개해 왔다.

런던에서 기록된 범죄가 증가하고 있으며, 특히 흉기와 다른 수단에 의한 폭력 범죄와 살인이 증가하고 있다.2018년 초부터 2018년 4월 중순까지 50건의 살인이 있었다.다른 요인들도 관련되어 [151]있지만, 런던 경찰들에 대한 자금 삭감이 이것에 기여했을 가능성이 있다.

지리

범위

2018년 6월 런던 위성사진

그레이터런던으로도 알려진 런던은 영국의 9개 지역 중 하나이며 도시의 [note 4]대부분을 차지하는 가장 큰 구역이다.런던시의 중심부는 한때 정착촌 전체를 구성했지만, 도시 면적이 커지면서, 런던은 런던교외를 합병하려는 시도를 거부했고, 이로 인해 "런던"은 여러 [152]가지 방식으로 정의되었다.

대런던의 40%가 런던 우체국으로 덮여 있는데, 런던 우체국에서는 'LONDON'[153][154]이 우편 주소의 일부를 형성하고 있다.런던 전화 지역 번호(020)는 Greater London과 비슷한 크기의 더 넓은 지역을 포함하지만, 일부 외곽 지역은 제외되고 일부는 바로 외곽에 포함됩니다.대런던 경계선은 M25 고속도로에 맞춰져 있다.[155]

Metropolitan Green [156]Belt에 의해 도시 확장이 방지되고 있지만, 건설된 지역이 경계를 넘어 여러 곳에서 확장되어 별도로 정의된 Greater London Urban Area가 생성된다.이 너머로 광활한 런던 통근 [157]벨트가 있다.그레이터런던은 어떤 목적으로든 Inner London과 Outer [158]London으로 나뉘고 템즈강은 비공식적인 런던 중심부와 함께 North와 South로 나뉘어져 있다.전통적으로 트라팔가 광장과 화이트홀의 교차점 근처의 채링 크로스에 있는 원래 엘리너 크로스인 런던의 명목 중심 좌표는 약 51°302626nN 00°073939wW / 51.50722nN 0.127°W / 51.50722; -012.750이다.[159]그러나 한 가지 정의로 볼 때 런던의 지리적 중심은 Lambeth North [160]튜브 역에서 북동쪽으로 0.1마일(150m) 떨어진 London Borough of Lambeth에 있습니다.

상황

런던 내에서는 시티오브런던과 시티오브웨스트민스터 둘 다 도시 지위를 가지고 있으며 시티오브런던과 그레이터런던의 나머지 지역은 모두 [161]중위의 목적을 위한 카운티이다.그레이터런던 지역은 미들섹스, 켄트, 서리, 에식스,[162] 허트포드셔역사적인 카운티의 일부인 지역을 포함한다.영국의 수도로서의 런던의 지위는 법령이나 서면으로 공식적으로 [note 5]인정되거나 확정된 적이 없습니다.

그 지위는 헌법 회의를 통해 형성되었고, 사실상 수도로서의 지위는 영국 미개정 헌법의 일부로 되었다.영국의 수도는 웨스트민스터 궁전이 12세기와 13세기에 발전하면서 윈체스터에서 런던으로 옮겨졌고,[166] 따라서 영국의 정치적 수도가 되었다.더 최근에, 대런던은 영국의 한 지역으로 정의되었고 이러한 맥락에서 [167]런던으로 알려져 있다.

지형

런던 from Primrose Hill

대런던은 2001년 7,172,036명의 인구와 평방마일(4,542/km2)당 11,760명의 인구밀도를 가졌던 총 611 평방마일(1,583km2) 지역을 포함한다.런던 메트로폴리탄 지역 또는 런던 메트로폴리탄 집적지로 알려진 확장 지역은 총 3,236 평방 마일(8,382 km2)의 면적을 포함하고 있으며, 인구는 1,510/[168]km당2 1,3709,000명이고 인구 밀도는 3,900명이다.

현대의 런던은 템즈강 위에 서 있으며, 템즈강의 주요 지형이며, 남서쪽에서 동쪽으로 도시를 가로지르는 항해를 할 수 있는 강이다.템즈강 계곡팔레스먼트 힐, 애딩턴 힐, 프림로즈 힐 등 완만하게 기복이 심한 언덕으로 둘러싸인 범람원이다.역사적으로 런던은 템즈강의 가장 낮은 가교 지점에서 자랐다.템즈강은 한때 넓은 늪지대를 가진 훨씬 넓고 얕은 강이었다. 만조 때, 그 해안은 현재의 [169]폭의 5배에 달했다.

빅토리아 시대 이후 템즈강은 광범위하게 제방을 쌓았고, 지금은 런던의 많은 지류가 지하로 흐른다.템즈강은 조수강으로 런던은 [170]홍수에 취약하다.기후 변화로 인한 높은 수위의 느리지만 지속적인 상승으로 인해 위협은 시간이 [171][172]지남에 따라 증가했고, 영국 제도의 느린 기울기(스코틀랜드와 북아일랜드 위, 잉글랜드, 웨일스, 아일랜드 남부 지역)로 인해 시간이 지남에 따라 증가했습니다.

1974년, 이 위협에 대처하기 위해 울리치의 템즈강을 건너 템즈강 방벽 건설에 10년의 작업이 시작되었다.장벽은 대략 2070년까지 설계대로 기능할 것으로 예상되지만, 미래의 확대 또는 재설계를 위한 개념은 이미 [173]논의되고 있다.

런던은 수년간 적은 수의 지진이 있었다.특히, 거시적 정보로 알 수 있는 1750년의 것들은 도시 바로 아래에 뚜렷이 들어섰다.2018년에는 [174]도심 바로 아래에서 두 개의 활단층이 서로 평행하게 운행하는 것이 발견되었다.게다가 이 도시는 1382년과 1580년의 지진으로 적어도 두 번 (치명적인 것을 포함) 피해를 입었다. 지진들은 영국 [175]해협에서 진앙되고 있다.런던의 건축 법규는 리히터 [176]규모 최소 6.5의 지진에도 견딜 수 있도록 고쳐지고 있다.

기후.

영국 런던
기후 차트(설명)
J
F
M
A
M
J
J
A
S
O
N
D
59
8
3
45
9
3
39
12
4
42
15
6
46
18
9
47
22
12
46
24
14
53
23
14
50
20
12
65
16
9
67
11
5
57
9
3
평균 최대 및 최소 온도(°C)
총 강수량(mm)

런던은 온대 해양성 기후(쾨펜: Cfb)입니다.에서 비가 내리기 시작한 적어도 1697년부터 이 도시에 강우 기록이 남아 있다.큐에서는 한 달 동안 가장 많은 비가 내린 것은 1755년 11월 7.4인치(189mm)이며, 가장 적은 강수량은 1788년 12월과 1800년 7월 모두 0인치(0mm)이다.1893년 [177]4월에는 마일 엔드도 0인치(0mm)였습니다.기록된 가장 습한 해는 1903년으로 총 38.1인치(969mm)의 강우량을 기록했으며, 가장 건조한 해는 1921년으로 총 12.1인치(308mm)[178]의 강우량을 기록했다.연평균 강수량은 약 600mm로 뉴욕시의 연간 강수량의 절반이지만,[179][180][181] 또한 호주 로마, 리스본, 시드니보다는 적다.상대적으로 낮은 연간 강수량에도 불구하고, 런던에는 여전히 연간 1.0mm 임계값에 109.6일의 비가 내린다.그러나 런던은 영국의 기후변화에 취약해 수문학 [182]전문가들 사이에서는 2050년 이전에 물이 부족해질 수 있다는 우려가 커지고 있다.

런던의 극한 기온은 2022년 7월 19일 히드로에서 40.2°C(104.4°F)에서 1962년 [183][184]1월 1일 노솔트에서 -16.1°C(3.0°F)까지 다양하다.기압에 대한 기록은 1692년부터 런던에 보관되어 왔다.지금까지 보고된 최고 압력은 2020년 [185]1월 20일의 1,049.8 밀리바(31.00 inHg)입니다.

여름은 대체로 따뜻하고 때로는 덥다.런던의 7월 평균 최고 기온은 23.5°C(74.3°F)이다.런던은 매년 평균 25°C(77.0°F) 이상 31일, 30.0°C(86.0°F) 이상 4.2일을 경험한다.2003년 유럽의 폭염 기간 동안 장기간에 걸친 폭염으로 수백 명의 열과 관련된 [186]사망자가 발생했다.1976년 영국에서는 32.2°C(90.0°F)보다 15일 연속 높은 열과 관련된 [187]사망자가 많았다.1911년 8월 그리니치 관측소의 이전 온도 37.8°C(100.0°F)는 나중에 [188]비표준으로 무시되었습니다.가뭄은 특히 여름,[189] 가장 최근인 2018년 여름에도 문제가 될 수 있으며, [190]5월부터 12월까지 일반적인 평균보다 훨씬 건조하다.하지만 가장 연속적으로 비가 내리지 않은 날은 1893년 [191]봄의 73일이었다.

겨울은 기온 변화가 거의 없이 대체로 시원하다.폭설은 드물지만, 보통 겨울에 적어도 한 번은 눈이 내린다.봄과 가을은 쾌적할 수 있다.대도시로서 런던은 상당한 도시 열섬 [192]효과가 있어 런던 중심부를 교외 및 교외보다 5°C(9°F) 더 따뜻하게 만든다.이는 런던 서쪽 15마일(24km)에 있는 런던 히스로와 런던 [193]기상 센터를 비교할 때 아래에 나타납니다.


1월 2월 마루 에이프릴 그럴지도 모른다 8월 9월 10월 11월 12월 연도
높은 °C(°F)를 기록하다 17.2
(63.0)
21.2
(70.2)
24.5
(76.1)
29.4
(84.9)
32.8
(91.0)
35.6
(96.1)
40.2
(104.4)
38.1
(100.6)
35.0
(95.0)
29.5
(85.1)
21.1
(70.0)
17.4
(63.3)
40.2
(104.4)
평균 최고 °C(°F) 8.4
(47.1)
9.0
(48.2)
11.7
(53.1)
15.0
(59.0)
18.4
(65.1)
21.6
(70.9)
23.9
(75.0)
23.4
(74.1)
20.2
(68.4)
15.8
(60.4)
11.5
(52.7)
8.8
(47.8)
15.7
(60.3)
일평균 °C(°F) 5.6
(42.1)
5.8
(42.4)
7.9
(46.2)
10.5
(50.9)
13.7
(56.7)
16.8
(62.2)
19.0
(66.2)
18.7
(65.7)
15.9
(60.6)
12.3
(54.1)
8.4
(47.1)
5.9
(42.6)
11.7
(53.1)
평균 최저 °C(°F) 2.7
(36.9)
2.7
(36.9)
4.1
(39.4)
6.0
(42.8)
9.1
(48.4)
12.0
(53.6)
14.2
(57.6)
14.1
(57.4)
11.6
(52.9)
8.8
(47.8)
5.3
(41.5)
3.1
(37.6)
7.8
(46.0)
낮은 °C(°F)를 기록하십시오. −16.1
(3.0)
−12.2
(10.0)
−8.3
(17.1)
−3.2
(26.2)
−3.1
(26.4)
−0.6
(30.9)
3.9
(39.0)
2.1
(35.8)
1.4
(34.5)
−5.5
(22.1)
−7.1
(19.2)
−14.2
(6.4)
−16.1
(3.0)
평균 강수량 mm(인치) 58.8
(2.31)
45.0
(1.77)
38.8
(1.53)
42.3
(1.67)
45.9
(1.81)
47.3
(1.86)
45.8
(1.80)
52.8
(2.08)
49.6
(1.95)
65.1
(2.56)
66.6
(2.62)
57.1
(2.25)
615.0
(24.21)
평균강수일수( 1 1.0mm) 11.5 9.5 8.5 8.8 8.0 8.3 7.9 8.4 7.9 10.8 11.2 10.8 111.7
평균 상대습도(%) 80 77 70 65 67 65 65 69 73 78 81 81 73
평균 이슬점 °C(°F) 3
(37)
2
(36)
2
(36)
4
(39)
7
(45)
10
(50)
12
(54)
12
(54)
10
(50)
9
(48)
6
(43)
3
(37)
7
(44)
월평균 일조시간 61.1 78.8 124.5 176.7 207.5 208.4 217.8 202.1 157.1 115.2 70.7 55.0 1,674.8
일조 가능률 23 28 31 40 41 41 42 45 40 35 27 21 35
평균 자외선 지수 1 1 2 4 5 6 6 5 4 2 1 0 3
출처 1: 네덜란드 왕립 기상연구소(Met[194][195][196] Office Royal Nutherch Institute[197][198])
출처 2 : Weather Atlas (일사율·UV 지수)[199] CEDA Archive TORO[200][201] 일시[202]

자세한 기후 정보는 런던 기후를 참조하십시오.

  1. ^ 평균은 히드로에서, 극단값은 런던 전역의 역에서 구합니다.
1월 2월 마루 에이프릴 그럴지도 모른다 8월 9월 10월 11월 12월 연도
높은 °C(°F)를 기록하다 14.4
(57.9)
19.7
(67.5)
21.7
(71.1)
25.6
(78.1)
30.0
(86.0)
32.8
(91.0)
35.3
(95.5)
37.5
(99.5)
30.0
(86.0)
25.6
(78.1)
18.9
(66.0)
15.0
(59.0)
37.5
(99.5)
평균 최고 °C(°F) 8.5
(47.3)
9.2
(48.6)
12.1
(53.8)
15.4
(59.7)
18.6
(65.5)
21.4
(70.5)
23.8
(74.8)
23.3
(73.9)
20.3
(68.5)
15.8
(60.4)
11.6
(52.9)
8.9
(48.0)
15.3
(59.5)
일평균 °C(°F) 5.9
(42.6)
6.2
(43.2)
8.4
(47.1)
10.7
(51.3)
13.8
(56.8)
16.7
(62.1)
18.8
(65.8)
18.7
(65.7)
15.9
(60.6)
12.4
(54.3)
8.8
(47.8)
6.3
(43.3)
11.9
(53.4)
평균 최저 °C(°F) 3.4
(38.1)
3.2
(37.8)
4.7
(40.5)
6.0
(42.8)
9.1
(48.4)
12.0
(53.6)
13.9
(57.0)
14.1
(57.4)
11.6
(52.9)
9.0
(48.2)
6.1
(43.0)
3.8
(38.8)
8.1
(46.6)
낮은 °C(°F)를 기록하십시오. −9.4
(15.1)
−9.4
(15.1)
−7.8
(18.0)
−2.2
(28.0)
−1.1
(30.0)
5.0
(41.0)
7.2
(45.0)
6.1
(43.0)
2.8
(37.0)
−3.3
(26.1)
−5.0
(23.0)
−7.2
(19.0)
−9.4
(15.1)
평균 강수량 mm(인치) 43.9
(1.73)
39.9
(1.57)
36.5
(1.44)
38.6
(1.52)
44.0
(1.73)
49.3
(1.94)
36.3
(1.43)
53.0
(2.09)
52.4
(2.06)
58.3
(2.30)
59.9
(2.36)
50.7
(2.00)
562.9
(22.16)
평균강수일수( 1 1.0mm) 10.5 9.2 7.9 8.1 7.9 7.8 7.1 8.2 7.9 10.3 10.6 10.2 105.6
월평균 일조시간 44.4 66.1 109.7 152.9 198.7 198.6 209.2 198.0 140.6 99.7 58.5 50.1 1,526.4
출처 1: Met[203][204][205] Office
출처 2: BBC[206] Weather

지역

런던의 광대한 도시 지역 내의 장소는 메이페어, 사우스워크, 웸블리, 화이트채플과 같은 지역 이름을 사용하여 식별됩니다.이것들은 비공식적인 명칭이거나 스프롤로 흡수된 마을의 이름을 반영하거나 교구나 이전 자치구와 같은 행정 단위로 대체되었다.

이러한 이름은 전통을 통해 계속 사용되어 왔으며, 각각은 고유한 특성을 가지고 있지만 공식적인 경계가 없는 지역을 지칭한다.1965년부터 대런던은 32개의 런던 자치구와 더불어 고대 [207][208]런던시로 분할되었다.시티오브런던은 주요 [209]금융지구이며, 카나리워프는 최근 동쪽에 위치한 도클랜즈의 새로운 금융 및 상업 중심지로 발전했습니다.

웨스트엔드는 런던의 주요 엔터테인먼트 및 쇼핑 구역으로 [210]관광객들을 끌어 모으고 있습니다.웨스트 런던에는 수천만 [211]파운드에 부동산을 팔 수 있는 고가의 주택지가 포함되어 있다.켄징턴과 첼시의 부동산 평균 가격은 2백만 파운드가 넘고 [212][213]런던 중심부 대부분에서도 마찬가지로 높은 지출이 이루어지고 있습니다.

이스트 엔드는 런던에서 [214]가장 가난한 지역일 뿐만 아니라 이민자 인구가 많은 것으로 알려진 원래 런던 항구에서 가장 가까운 지역이다.동런던 주변 지역은 런던의 초기 산업 발전을 많이 보였는데, 지금은 런던 리버사이드2012년 올림픽[214]패럴림픽을 위해 올림픽 공원으로 개발된 로어 리 밸리를 포함한 템즈 게이트웨이의 일부로서 이 지역 전체의 브라운필드 부지가 재개발되고 있다.

아키텍처

1078년에 지어진 중세 성인 런던

런던의 건물들은 너무 다양해서 어떤 특정한 건축양식으로도 특징지을 수 없다. 부분적으로 그들의 다양한 나이 때문이다.내셔널 갤러리와 같은 많은 웅장한 집들과 공공 건물들은 포틀랜드 돌로 지어졌다.도시의 일부 지역, 특히 중심부의 바로 서쪽 지역은 흰색 회반죽이나 흰색으로 칠해진 건물로 특징지어진다.런던 중심부의 건물들은 1666년 대화재 이전으로 거슬러 올라가는데, 이것들은 몇 개의 흔적은 로마 유적, 런던 과 도시에 흩어져 있는 튜더 생존자들입니다.예를 들어, 1515년 [215]토마스 울지 추기경에 의해 지어진 영국의 현존하는 가장 오래된 튜더 궁전인 튜더 시대의 햄튼 코트 궁전이 있다.

버킹엄 궁전의 동쪽 건물 공공 파사드는 1847년에서 1850년 사이에 지어졌으며 1913년에 현재의 모습으로 개조되었다.

다양한 건축 유산의 일부는 Wren의 17세기 교회, 왕립거래소, 영국은행과 같은 신고전주의 금융 기관, 20세기 초반의 올드 베일리, 1960년대 바비칸 사유지입니다.

남서쪽의 강가에 있는 1939년식 Battersea 발전소는 지역 랜드마크이며, 일부 철도 터미널은 빅토리아 시대의 건축물, 특히 St. 팬크래스패딩턴.[216]런던의 밀도는 중앙 지역과 카나리 워프, 런던 내부의 높은 주거 밀도, 런던 외부의 낮은 밀도로 다양하다.

오른쪽에 넬슨 기둥이 있는 트라팔가 광장과 분수대

런던시의 기념비는 근처에서 발생한 런던 대화재를 기념하면서 주변 지역의 전망을 제공합니다.파크 레인의 북쪽 끝과 남쪽 끝에 있는 마블 아치와 웰링턴 아치는 각각 켄징턴있는 앨버트 기념관과 로열 앨버트 홀처럼 왕족과 인연이 있다.넬슨 원기둥(호레이쇼 넬슨 제독을 기념하기 위해 건립)은 런던 중심부의 중심 지점 중 하나인 트라팔가 광장에 있는 전국적으로 알려진 기념물이다.오래된 건물들은 주로 벽돌로 지어졌으며, 가장 일반적으로 노란색 런던 스톡 벽돌이나 따뜻한 오렌지색-빨간색 변종이며, 종종 조각과 흰색 석고 [217]틀로 장식됩니다.

역사적인 스타일과 병치된 현대적 스타일; 30 St Mary Axes (더빙판 "The Gherkin")

밀도가 높은 지역에서는 대부분의 농도가 중층 및 고층 빌딩을 통해 이루어집니다.30 St Mary Axes, Tower 42, Broadgate Tower, One Canada Square와 같은 런던의 고층 빌딩들은 대부분 두 개의 금융 구역인 City of London과 Canary Warf에 있다.바오로 대성당과 다른 역사적 [218]건물의 보호된 조망을 방해할 경우 특정 현장에서 고층 개발이 제한됩니다.세인트 폴 하이츠'로 알려진 이 보호 정책은 1937년부터 런던 [219]시에 의해 운영되어 왔다.그럼에도 불구하고, 중심 런던에는 영국에서 가장 높은 건물인 95층 샤드 런던 브릿지를 포함한 많은 고층 빌딩이 있습니다(런던의 고층 빌딩 참조).

다른 주목할 만한 현대적인 건물들은 메스, 원래 별명은 파이낸셜 타임즈에 의해 만들어진 신조어는 독특한 각 설계에지만 나중에 그 공식 name,[220]20Fenchurch 거리로 지정된 때문, 무전기 전 시청 Sou에 handset,[221]를 닮은 독특한 모양 때문에"그 Walkie-Talkie"이라고 명명한 포함한다.thwark 재치독특한 타원형 [222]형태인 Art Deco BBC Broadcasting HouseJames Stirling서머즈 타운/킹스 크로스에 있는 포스트모더니즘 영국 도서관.카나리 워프 동쪽에 있는 템즈강변의 밀레니엄 돔이었던 것이 지금은 오 [223]아레나라고2 불리는 엔터테인먼트 장소가 되었다.

도시 풍경

오른쪽 전경국회의사당과 엘리자베스 타워(빅벤), 왼쪽 전경에 런던 아이, 배경카나리 워프가 있는샤드(2014년 9월).

자연사

런던 자연사 학회는 런던이 40% 이상의 녹지 공간 또는 개방된 물을 가진 "세계에서 가장 푸른 도시 중 하나"라고 제안합니다.그것들은 2000종의 꽃이 피는 식물이 그곳에서 자라고 있으며, 조수 템즈강이 120종의 물고기를 [224]서식하고 있다는 것을 보여준다.그들은 또한 런던 중심부에 60종 이상의 새 둥지가 있으며, 그들의 구성원들은 47종의 나비, 1173종의 나방 그리고 270종 이상의 거미를 런던 주변에 기록했다고 말한다.런던의 습지 지역은 많은 물새들의 국가적으로 중요한 개체군을 지탱한다.런던에는 38개의 특수 과학 관심 사이트(SSSI), 2개의 국립 자연 보호 구역 및 76개의 지역 자연 보호 [225]구역이 있습니다.

양서류는 테이트 모던에 사는 매끄러운 도요새와 일반적개구리, 흔한 두꺼비, 팔메이트 도요새, 그리고이 있는 도요새 등 수도에서 흔히 수 있습니다.반면에, 느림벌레, 일반적도마뱀, 막대 모양의 풀뱀 그리고 덧씌우기와 같은 토종 파충류들은 대부분 런던 [226]외곽에서만 볼 수 있다.

사우스런던 사우스워크 에일스 스트리트에 사는 여우

런던의 다른 주민들 중에는 10,000마리의 붉은 여우가 있어서, 지금은 런던의 평방 마일마다 16마리의 여우가 있다.이 도시 여우들은 시골 여우들보다 눈에 띄게 대담해서 보행자들과 도로를 공유하고 사람들의 뒷마당에서 새끼를 기릅니다.여우는 심지어 국회의사당에 몰래 들어갔는데, 그 중 하나는 서류 캐비닛에서 잠든 채로 발견되었다.또 다른 한 명이 버킹엄 궁전에 침입해 엘리자베스 2세 여왕의 소중한 핑크 플라밍고 [227]몇 마리를 사살했다고 한다.그러나 일반적으로 여우와 도시 사람들은 잘 지내는 것으로 보인다.2001년 런던에 본부를 둔 포유동물 협회가 실시한 조사에 따르면, 정원 포유류 방문 일지를 쓰겠다고 자원한 3,779명의 응답자 중 80%가 그들이 있는 것을 좋아했다.이 샘플은 런던 시민 전체를 [228][229]대표할 수 없다.

대런던에서 발견되는 다른 포유동물로는 고슴도치, 갈색 쥐, , 토끼, 쥐, 그리고 회색 [230]다람쥐가 있습니다.에핑 숲과 같은 런던 외곽의 야생 지역에서는 붉은 여우, 회색 다람쥐, 고슴도치 외에 유럽 산토끼, 오소리, 들판, 은행과 물밭쥐, 나무쥐, 두더지, 말쥐, 족제비 등을 포함한 다양한 포유류가 발견됩니다.타워 브리지에서 약 1마일 떨어진 와핑의 하이웨이에서 죽은 수달이 발견되었는데,[231] 이는 수달이 도시에서 100년 떨어진 곳에서 다시 이동하기 시작했음을 암시한다.영국의 18종의 박쥐 중 10종이 Epping Forest에서 기록되었습니다: 소프라노, 나투시우스, 그리고 일반적인 피피스트렐레, 일반적인 야상, 세로틴, 바르바스텔, 도벤톤, 갈색 긴귀, 나터러, 그리고 Leisler'[232]s.

런던의 이상한 광경들 중에는 [233]템즈강의 고래가 있었고, BBC 투 프로그램인 Natural World: Natural History of London은 런던 지하철에서 도시 주변을 돌아다니기 위해 야생 비둘기, 빌링스게이트 어시장 밖의 생선장수들로부터 물고기를 잡아가는 물개, 그리고 [234]소시지를 주면 "앉을" 여우들을 보여준다.

붉은 사슴 떼와 휴면 사슴 떼는 리치몬드와 부시 공원 에서도 자유롭게 돌아다닌다.매년 11월과 2월에 [235]도살처분이 실시되어 수치가 유지되도록 하고 있습니다.에핑 숲은 또한 휴면 사슴으로 알려져 있는데, 이 사슴은 숲의 북쪽에 있는 무리에서 자주 볼 수 있다.멜라닌성 흑사슴의 희귀 개체군 또한 테돈부아 근처의 사슴 보호구역에서 유지되고 있다.20세기 초 사슴공원에서 탈출한 문작사슴도 숲에서 발견된다.런던 사람들이 도시를 공유하는 새와 여우 같은 야생동물에 익숙해져 있는 반면, 최근에는 도시 사슴들이 정기적으로 나타나기 시작했고, 런던의 [236][237]녹지를 이용하기 위해 모든 휴면 사슴 무리가 밤에 주택가로 온다.

인구통계학

2011년 영국 인구 조사[238]
출생지 인구.
United Kingdom 영국 5,175,677
India 인도 262,247
Poland 폴란드 158,300
Republic of Ireland 아일랜드 129,807
Nigeria 나이지리아 114,718
Pakistan 파키스탄 112,457
Bangladesh 방글라데시 109,948
Jamaica 자메이카 87,467
Sri Lanka 스리랑카 84,542
France 프랑스. 66,654
인구밀도도

2011년 인구조사에 따르면 런던 인구의 36.7%인 299만8천264명이 외국 태생으로 뉴욕 다음으로 이민자 인구가 많은 도시다.2015년 런던에서 태어난 어린이 중 약 69%가 해외에서 [239]태어난 부모를 한 명 이상 두고 있었다.오른쪽에 있는 표는 런던 거주자의 가장 흔한 출생 국가를 보여줍니다.독일 태생 인구 중 18위에 있는 일부는 [240]독일 주둔 영국군에 복무하는 부모에게서 태어난 영국 시민권자라는 점에 유의하십시오.

산업화의 증가는 19세기와 20세기 초에 걸쳐 런던의 인구를 증가시켰고, 19세기 후반과 20세기 초반에는 런던의 인구가 가장 많은 도시였다.제2차 세계대전 발발 직전인 1939년에는 861만5245명으로 정점을 찍었으나 2001년 인구조사에서는 719만2091명으로 감소했다.그러나 2001년과 2011년 사이에 인구가 100만 명 이상 증가하여 [241]후자는 8,173,941명에 달했다.

그러나 런던의 연속적인 도시 지역은 그레이터 런던을 넘어 2011년에 [30]9,787,426명의 인구가 있는 반면,[242][243]넓은 대도시 지역은 사용된 정의에 따라 1,200만-14,00만 명의 인구가 있었다.Eurostat에 따르면, 런던은 유럽에서 두 번째인구가 많은 대도시 지역이다.1991년부터 [244]2001년까지 순이민자 72만6천명이 그곳에 도착했다.

이 지역은 610 평방 마일(1,5792 km)에 걸쳐 있으며, 다른 [246]영국 지역의 10배가 넘는 평방 마일(5,177/km2)[245]당 13,410명의 인구 밀도를 제공합니다.인구로 따지면 런던은 19번째로 큰 도시이자 18번째로 큰 대도시 [247][248]지역입니다.

연령구조 및 중위연령

2018년 아우터 런던 인구의 20.6%, 이너 런던 인구의 18%를 14세 미만의 어린이가 차지했다.15-24세 연령대는 아우터 11.1%, 이너런던 10.2%, 아우터런던 25-44세 30.6%, 이너런던 39.7%, 아우터런던 45-64세 24%, 이너런던 20.7%였다.65세 이상은 아우터런던에서는 13.6%이지만,[249] 이너런던에서는 9.3%에 불과하다.

2018년 런던의 중위연령은 36.5세로 영국 중위연령 40.[249]3세보다 젊었다.

민족

2011년 인구 조사에 따른 선택된 인종 집단의 백분율 분포를 나타낸 대런던 지도
White
하얀색
Asian
아시아의
Black
블랙입니다.

2011년 국세청 추정에 따르면, 런던 거주자 8,173,941명 중 59.8%가 백인이었고, 백인 영국인 44.9%, 백인 아일랜드인 2.2%, 집시/아일랜드인 0.1%, 기타 [250]백인 12.1%가 백인으로 분류되었다.한편, 런던 시민의 20.9%는 아시아계와 혼혈계였고, 19.7%는 아시아계, 1.2%는 아시아계 혼혈계였다.인도인이 6.6%, 파키스탄인방글라데시가 각각 2.7%로 뒤를 이었다.중국인은 1.5%, 아랍인은 1.3%였다.그 외 4.9%는 '기타 아시아인'[250]으로 분류됐다.

런던 인구의 15.6%가 흑인과 흑인의 혼혈이었다.전체 흑인의 13.3%가 흑인의 2.3%가 혼혈이었다.흑인 아프리카인은 런던 인구의 7.0%를 차지했고, 흑인은 4.2%, 기타 흑인은 2.1%, [250]혼혈은 5.0%였다.아프리카인의 런던 주둔 역사는 로마 [251]시대로 거슬러 올라간다.

2007년 현재, 런던 전역의 초등학교의 5분의 1이 소수 [252]민족 출신이다.2011년 인구조사에서 런던의 0~15세 인구 162만4768명 중 백인은 46.4%, 아시아인은 19.8%, 흑인인은 19%, 혼혈인은 10.8%, 다른 [253]민족은 4%였다.2005년 1월, 런던의 인종과 종교적 다양성에 대한 조사는 런던에서 300개 이상의 언어가 사용되고 50개 이상의 비원주민 커뮤니티가 10,000명 [254]이상의 인구를 가지고 있다고 주장했다.통계청의 통계에 의하면, 2010년에 런던의 외국 태생의 인구는 265만 명(33%)으로, 1997년의 163만 명보다 증가했다.

2011년 인구조사에 따르면 대런던 인구의 36.7%가 [255]영국 밖에서 태어났다.독일 태생 인구 중 일부는 독일 [256]주둔 영국군에 복무 중인 부모에게서 태어난 영국 국적자일 가능성이 높다.통계청의 추정에 따르면 2009년 7월부터 2010년 6월까지 런던에 거주한 5대 외국인 출생 집단은 인도, 폴란드, 아일랜드, 방글라데시 및 [257]나이지리아에서 태어났다.

종교

2011년 인구조사에 따르면 가장 큰 종교 집단은 기독교인(48.4%)이었고, 무종교인(20.7%), 무슬림(12.4%), 무응답(8.5%), 힌두교인(5.0%), 유대인(1.8%), 시크교도(1.5%), 불교인(1.0%), 기타(0.6%)[258] 순이었다.

런던은 전통적으로 기독교였고, 특히 런던시에 많은 수의 교회가 있습니다.알려진 시티의 세인트 대성당과 강 남쪽의 사우스워크 대성당은 성공회 행정 [259]중심지이며, 영국 국교회와 전 세계 성공회 교구의 주교인 캔터베리 대주교런던 램베스 [260]궁전의 주요 거처를 가지고 있다.

BAPS 슈리 스와미나라얀 만디르 런던은 영국과 유럽에서 두 번째로 큰 힌두 사원이다.

중요한 국가 및 왕실 의식은 세인트 사원과 웨스트민스터 [261]사원에서 공유된다.수도원은 잉글랜드[262]웨일즈에서 가장 큰 로마 가톨릭 성당인 웨스트민스터 대성당과 혼동해서는 안 된다.성공회가 널리 퍼져있음에도 불구하고 교단 내에서의 준수율은 낮다.영국 교회 [263]통계에 따르면 교회 출석은 길고 꾸준한 감소세를 지속하고 있다.

주목할 만한 모스크로는 확성기를 통해 이슬람교도에게 기도를 할 수 있는 타워 햄릿의 이스트 런던 모스크, 리젠트 공원[264] 가장자리있는 런던 중앙 모스크, 아마디야 이슬람 공동체의 바툴 푸투 등이 있다.석유 붐 이후 런던 [265][266][267]서부의 메이페어, 켄징턴, 나이츠브릿지를 중심으로 부유한 중동 아랍계 이슬람교도들의 수가 증가했다.타워 햄릿[268]뉴햄동부 자치구에 큰 벵골 이슬람 공동체가 있습니다.

큰 힌두교 공동체는 해로우와 브렌트 북서부 자치구에서 발견되는데,[269] 브렌트는 2006년까지 유럽에서 가장 큰 힌두교 사원인 네아스덴 [270]사원을 주최했다.런던에는 또한 BAPS 슈리 스와미나라얀 만디르 런던을 포함한 44개의 힌두 사원이 있다.런던 동부와 서부에 시크교 공동체가 있으며,[271] 특히 인도 이외에서 가장 큰 시크교 인구와 가장 큰 시크교 사원 중 한 곳의 본거지인 사우스올에 있다.

The majority of British Jews live in London, with notable Jewish communities in Stamford Hill, Stanmore, Golders Green, Finchley, Hampstead, Hendon and Edgware in North London. Bevis Marks Synagogue in the City of London is affiliated to London's historic Sephardic Jewish community. It is the only synagogue in Europe to have held regular services continually for over 300 years. Stanmore and Canons Park Synagogue has the largest membership of any Orthodox synagogue in Europe, overtaking Ilford synagogue (also in London) in 1998.[272] The London Jewish Forum was set up in 2006 in response to the growing significance of devolved London Government.[273]

Accents

Cockney is an accent heard across London, mainly spoken by working-class and lower-middle class Londoners. It is mainly attributed to the East End and wider East London, having originated there in the 18th century, although it has been suggested that the Cockney style of speech is much older.[274] Some features of Cockney include, Th-fronting (pronouncing "th" as "f"), example, "some fings in life are bad" (heard in opening of "Always Look on the Bright Side of Life" in Monty Python's Life of Brian), "th" inside a word is pronounced with a "v" (brother becomes brovva), H-dropping, example 'Ampshire for Hampshire (as Eliza Doolittle said in My Fair Lady), and, like most English accents, a Cockney accent drops the "r" after a vowel, for example, "car" is pronounced "cah".[275] John Camden Hotten, in his Slang Dictionary of 1859, makes reference to Cockney "use of a peculiar slang language" (Cockney rhyming slang) when describing the costermongers of the East End. Examples include: using the word "treacle" to mean sweetheart (rhymes with Treacle tart), and "porkies" to mean lies (rhymes with Pork pies).[276] Since the start of the 21st century the Cockney dialect is less common in parts of the East End itself, with modern strongholds including other parts of London and suburbs in the home counties.[277][278]

Estuary English is an intermediate accent between Cockney and Received Pronunciation.[279] It is widely spoken by people of all classes in London and south-eastern England, associated with the River Thames and its estuary.[280]

Multicultural London English (MLE) is a multiethnolect becoming increasingly common in multicultural areas amongst young, working-class people from diverse backgrounds. It is a fusion of an array of ethnic accents, in particular Afro-Caribbean and South Asian, with a significant Cockney influence.[281]

Received Pronunciation (RP) is the accent traditionally regarded as the standard for British English.[282] It has no specific geographical correlate,[283] although it is also traditionally defined as the standard speech used in London and south-eastern England.[284] It is mainly spoken by upper-class and upper-middle class Londoners.[285][286]

Economy

The City of London, one of the largest financial centres in the world[287]

London's gross regional product in 2019 was £503 billion, around a quarter of UK GDP.[288] London has five major business districts: the city, Westminster, Canary Wharf, Camden & Islington and Lambeth & Southwark. One way to get an idea of their relative importance is to look at relative amounts of office space: Greater London had 27 million m2 of office space in 2001, and the City contains the most space, with 8 million m2 of office space. London has some of the highest real estate prices in the world.[289][290] London is the world's most expensive office market according to world property journal (2015) report.[291] As of 2015 the residential property in London is worth $2.2 trillion – the same value as that of Brazil's annual GDP.[292] The city has the highest property prices of any European city according to the Office for National Statistics and the European Office of Statistics.[293] On average the price per square metre in central London is €24,252 (April 2014). This is higher than the property prices in other G8 European capital cities; Berlin €3,306, Rome €6,188 and Paris €11,229.[294]

The City of London

London's finance industry is based in the City of London and Canary Wharf, the two major business districts in London. London is one of the pre-eminent financial centres of the world as the most important location for international finance.[295][296] London took over as a major financial centre shortly after 1795 when the Dutch Republic collapsed before the Napoleonic armies. For many bankers established in Amsterdam (e.g. Hope, Baring), this was only time to move to London. Also, London's market-centred system (as opposed to the bank-centred one in Amsterdam) grew more dominant in the 18th century.[83] The London financial elite was strengthened by a strong Jewish community from all over Europe capable of mastering the most sophisticated financial tools of the time.[89] This unique concentration of talents accelerated the transition from the Commercial Revolution to the Industrial Revolution. Writing about capitalism and the utility of diversity in his book on English society, French philosopher Voltaire expounded upon why England at that time was more prosperous in comparison to the country's less religiously tolerant European neighbours:

The Royal Exchange in 1886

Take a view of the Royal Exchange in London, a place more venerable than many courts of justice, where the representatives of all nations meet for the benefit of mankind. There the Jew, the Mahometan [Muslim], and the Christian transact together, as though they all professed the same religion, and give the name of infidel to none but bankrupts. There the Presbyterian confides in the Anabaptist, and the Churchman depends on the Quaker's word. If one religion only were allowed in England, the Government would very possibly become arbitrary; if there were but two, the people would cut one another's throats; but as there are such a multitude, they all live happy and in peace.

The Bank of England, established in 1694, is the model on which most modern central banks are based.

By the mid-19th century, London was the leading financial centre, and at the end of the century over half the world's trade was financed in British currency.[298] Still, as of 2016 London tops the world rankings on the Global Financial Centres Index (GFCI),[299] and it ranked second in A.T. Kearney's 2018 Global Cities Index.[300]

London's largest industry is finance, and its financial exports make it a large contributor to the UK's balance of payments. Around 325,000 people were employed in financial services in London until mid-2007. London has over 480 overseas banks, more than any other city in the world. It is also the world's biggest currency trading centre, accounting for some 37 per cent of the $5.1 trillion average daily volume, according to the BIS.[301] Over 85 per cent (3.2 million) of the employed population of greater London works in the services industries. Because of its prominent global role, London's economy had been affected by the financial crisis of 2007–2008. However, by 2010 the city had recovered, put in place new regulatory powers, proceeded to regain lost ground and re-established London's economic dominance.[302] Along with professional services headquarters, the City of London is home to the Bank of England, London Stock Exchange, and Lloyd's of London insurance market.[303]

Over half the UK's top 100 listed companies (the FTSE 100) and over 100 of Europe's 500 largest companies have their headquarters in central London. Over 70 per cent of the FTSE 100 are within London's metropolitan area, and 75 per cent of Fortune 500 companies have offices in London.[304] In a 1992 report commissioned by the London Stock Exchange, Sir Adrian Cadbury, chairman of his family's confectionery company Cadbury, produced the Cadbury Report, a code of best practice which served as a basis for reform of corporate governance around the world.[305]

Media and technology

Broadcasting House in central London, headquarters of the BBC

Media companies are concentrated in London, and the media distribution industry is London's second most competitive sector.[306] The BBC is a significant employer, while other broadcasters also have headquarters around the city. Many national newspapers are edited in London; the term Fleet Street (where most national newspapers operated) remains a metonym for the British national press. London is a major retail centre and in 2010 had the highest non-food retail sales of any city in the world, with a total spend of around £64.2 billion.[307] The Port of London is the second largest in the UK, handling 45 million tonnes of cargo each year.[308]

A growing number of technology companies are based in London, notably in East London Tech City, also known as Silicon Roundabout. In 2014 the city was among the first to receive a geoTLD.[309][310][311] In February 2014 London was ranked as the European City of the Future[312] in the 2014/15 list by fDi Intelligence.[313] Computer science pioneer Alan Turing hails from Maida Vale, west London. A museum in Bletchley Park, where Turing was based during World War II, is located in Bletchley, 40 miles (64 km) north of central London, as is The National Museum of Computing.[314][315]

The gas and electricity distribution networks that manage and operate the towers, cables and pressure systems that deliver energy to consumers across the city are managed by National Grid plc, SGN[316] and UK Power Networks.[317]

Tourism

London is one of the leading tourist destinations in the world and in 2015 was ranked as the most visited city in the world with over 65 million visits.[318][319] It is also the top city in the world by visitor cross-border spending, estimated at US$20.23 billion in 2015.[320] Tourism is one of London's prime industries, employing 700,000 full-time workers in 2016, and contributes £36 billion a year to the economy.[321] The city accounts for 54% of all inbound visitor spending in the UK.[322] As of 2016 London was the world top city destination as ranked by TripAdvisor users.[323]

In 2015 the top most-visited attractions in the UK were all in London. The top 10 most visited attractions were: (with visits per venue)[324]

  1. British Museum: 6,820,686
  2. National Gallery: 5,908,254
  3. Natural History Museum (South Kensington): 5,284,023
  4. Southbank Centre: 5,102,883
  5. Tate Modern: 4,712,581
  6. Victoria and Albert Museum (South Kensington): 3,432,325
  7. Science Museum: 3,356,212
  8. Somerset House: 3,235,104
  9. Tower of London: 2,785,249
  10. National Portrait Gallery: 2,145,486

The number of hotel rooms in London in 2015 stood at 138,769, and is expected to grow over the years.[325]

Transport

Journeys in Greater London by mode from 1997 to 2018[326]

Transport is one of the four main areas of policy administered by the Mayor of London,[327] but the mayor's financial control does not extend to the longer-distance rail network that enters London. In 2007 the Mayor of London assumed responsibility for some local lines, which now form the London Overground network, adding to the existing responsibility for the London Underground, trams and buses. The public transport network is administered by Transport for London (TfL).[328]

The lines that formed the London Underground, as well as trams and buses, became part of an integrated transport system in 1933 when the London Passenger Transport Board or London Transport was created. Transport for London is now the statutory corporation responsible for most aspects of the transport system in Greater London, and is run by a board and a commissioner appointed by the Mayor of London.[329]

Aviation

Heathrow Airport is the busiest airport in Europe as well as the second busiest in the world for international passenger traffic. (Terminal 5C is pictured.)

London is a major international air transport hub with the busiest city airspace in the world. Eight airports use the word London in their name, but most traffic passes through six of these. Additionally, various other airports also serve London, catering primarily to general aviation flights.

  • Heathrow Airport, in Hillingdon, West London, was for many years the busiest airport in the world for international traffic, and is the major hub of the nation's flag carrier, British Airways.[330] In March 2008 its fifth terminal was opened.[331] In 2014, Dubai gained from Heathrow the leading position in terms of international passenger traffic.[332]
  • Gatwick Airport,[333] south of London in West Sussex, handles flights to more destinations than any other UK airport[334] and is the main base of easyJet,[335] the UK's largest airline by number of passengers.[336]
  • Stansted Airport,[337] north-east of London in Essex, has flights that serve the greatest number of European destinations of any UK airport[338] and is the main base of Ryanair,[339] the world's largest international airline by number of international passengers.[340]
  • Luton Airport, to the north of London in Bedfordshire, is used by several budget airlines (especially easyJet and Wizz Air) for short-haul flights.[341]
  • London City Airport, the most central airport and the one with the shortest runway, in Newham, East London, is focused on business travellers, with a mixture of full-service short-haul scheduled flights and considerable business jet traffic.[342]
  • Southend Airport, east of London in Essex, is a smaller, regional airport that caters for short-haul flights on a limited, though growing, number of airlines.[343] In 2017, international passengers made up over 95% of the total at Southend, the highest proportion of any London airport.[344]

Rail

Underground and DLR

The London Underground is the world's oldest and third-longest rapid transit system.

The London Underground, commonly referred to as the Tube or just the Underground, is the oldest[345] and third longest[346] metro system in the world. The system serves 272 stations.[347] and was formed from several private companies, including the world's first underground electric line, the City and South London Railway.[348] It dates from 1863.[349]

Over four million journeys are made every day on the Underground network, over 1 billion each year.[350] An investment programme is attempting to reduce congestion and improve reliability, including £6.5 billion (€7.7 billion) spent before the 2012 Summer Olympics.[351] The Docklands Light Railway (DLR), which opened in 1987, is a second, more local metro system using smaller and lighter tram-type vehicles that serve the Docklands, Greenwich and Lewisham.

Suburban

There are 368 railway stations in the London Travelcard Zones on an extensive above-ground suburban railway network. South London, particularly, has a high concentration of railways as it has fewer Underground lines. Most rail lines terminate around the centre of London, running into eighteen terminal stations, with the exception of the Thameslink trains connecting Bedford in the north and Brighton in the south via Luton and Gatwick airports.[352] London has Britain's busiest station by number of passengers—Waterloo, with over 184 million people using the interchange station complex (which includes Waterloo East station) each year.[353][354] Clapham Junction is the busiest station in Europe by the number of trains passing.

With the need for more rail capacity in London, the Elizabeth Line (also known as Crossrail) opened in May 2022.[355] It is a new railway line running east to west through London and into the Home Counties with a branch to Heathrow Airport.[356] It was Europe's biggest construction project, with a £15 billion projected cost.[357][358]

Inter-city and international

St Pancras International is the main terminal for high-speed Eurostar and High Speed 1 services, as well as commuter suburban Thameslink and inter-city East Midlands Railway services.

London is the centre of the National Rail network, with 70 per cent of rail journeys starting or ending in London.[359] King's Cross station and Euston station, which are both in London, are the starting points of the East Coast Main Line and the West Coast Main Line – the two main railway lines in Britain. Like suburban rail services, regional and inter-city trains depart from several termini around the city centre, linking London with the rest of Britain including Aberdeen, Birmingham, Blackpool, Bradford, Brighton, Bristol, Cambridge, Cardiff, Carlisle, Chester, Coventry, Crewe, Derby, Doncaster, Dover, Edinburgh, Exeter, Glasgow, Holyhead (for Dublin), Hull, Ipswich, Lancaster, Leeds, Liverpool, Nottingham, Manchester, Newcastle, Norwich, Oxford, Peterborough, Plymouth, Portsmouth, Preston, Reading, Sheffield, Southampton, Sunderland, Stevenage, Swansea, Weymouth, Wolverhampton and York.[360]

London also has convenient rail connections with airports out of Greater London. These airports include Birmingham Airport (via Birmingham International railway station), East Midlands Airport (via East Midlands Parkway railway station), Inverness Airport (via Inverness railway station), Leeds Bradford Airport (via Bradford Interchange or Leeds railway station) and Liverpool John Lennon Airport (via Liverpool South Parkway railway station).[360]

Some international railway services to Continental Europe were operated during the 20th century as boat trains, such as the Admiraal de Ruijter to Amsterdam and the Night Ferry to Paris and Brussels. The opening of the Channel Tunnel in 1994 connected London directly to the continental rail network, allowing Eurostar services to begin. Since 2007, high-speed trains link St. Pancras International with Lille, Calais, Paris, Disneyland Paris, Brussels, Amsterdam and other European tourist destinations via the High Speed 1 rail link and the Channel Tunnel.[361] The first high-speed domestic trains started in June 2009 linking Kent to London.[362] There are plans for a second high speed line linking London to the Midlands, North West England, and Yorkshire.[363]

Freight

Although rail freight levels are far down compared to their height, significant quantities of cargo are also carried into and out of London by rail; chiefly building materials and landfill waste. As a major hub of the British railway network, London's tracks also carry large amounts of freight for the other regions, such as container freight from the Channel Tunnel and English Channel ports, and nuclear waste for reprocessing at Sellafield.[364]

Buses, coaches and trams

A New Routemaster (which replaced the AEC Routemaster) entered service in 2012. The red double-decker bus is an emblematic symbol of London.

London's bus network runs 24 hours a day with about 9,300 vehicles, over 675 bus routes and about 19,000 bus stops.[365] In 2019/1920 the network had over 2 billion commuter trips per year.[366] Since 2010 and average of £1.2 billion is taken in revenue each year.[367] London has one of the largest wheelchair-accessible networks in the world[368] and from the third quarter of 2007, became more accessible to hearing and visually impaired passengers as audio-visual announcements were introduced.[369]

London's coach hub is Victoria Coach Station, an Art Deco building opened in 1932. The coach station was initially run by a group of coach companies under the name of London Coastal Coaches; however, in 1970 the service and station were included in the nationalisation of the country's coach services, becoming part of the National Bus Company. In 1988, the coach station was purchased by London Transport which then became Transport for London. Victoria Coach Station has over 14 million passengers a year and provides services across the UK and continental Europe.[370]

London has a modern tram network, known as Tramlink, centred on Croydon in South London. The network has 39 stops and four routes, and carried 28 million people in 2013.[371][372] Since June 2008, Transport for London has completely owned and operated Tramlink.[373]

Cable car

London's first and to date only cable car is the London Cable Car, which opened in June 2012. The cable car crosses the Thames and links Greenwich Peninsula with the Royal Docks in the east of the city. It is integrated with London's Oyster Card ticketing system, although the Emirates Air Line fares are not included in the Oyster daily capping.[374] It cost £60 million to build and can carry up to 2,500 passengers per hour in each direction at peak times. Similar to the London Cycle Hire Scheme bike hire scheme, the cable car was sponsored in a 10-year deal by the airline Emirates.[375]

Cycling

Santander Cycle Hire near Victoria in Central London

In the Greater London Area, around 670,000 people use a bike every day,[376] meaning around 7% of the total population of around 8.8 million use a bike on an average day.[377][378] This relatively low percentage of bicycle users may be due to the poor investments for cycling in London of about £110 million per year,[379] equating to around £12 per person, which can be compared to £22 in the Netherlands.[380]

Cycling has become an increasingly popular way to get around London. The launch of a bicycle hire scheme in July 2010 was successful and generally well received.[381]

Port and river boats

The Port of London, once the largest in the world, is now only the second-largest in the United Kingdom, handling 45 million tonnes of cargo each year as of 2009.[308] Most of this cargo passes through the Port of Tilbury, outside the boundary of Greater London.[308]

London has river boat services on the Thames known as Thames Clippers, which offer both commuter and tourist boat services.[382] At major piers including Canary Wharf, London Bridge City, Battersea Power Station and London Eye (Waterloo), services depart at least every 20 minutes during commuter times.[383] The Woolwich Ferry, with 2.5 million passengers every year, is a frequent service linking the North and South Circular Roads.[384]

Roads

Although the majority of journeys in central London are made by public transport, car travel is common in the suburbs. The inner ring road (around the city centre), the North and South Circular roads (just within the suburbs), and the outer orbital motorway (the M25, just outside the built-up area in most places) encircle the city and are intersected by a number of busy radial routes—but very few motorways penetrate into inner London. A plan for a comprehensive network of motorways throughout the city (the Ringways Plan) was prepared in the 1960s but was mostly cancelled in the early 1970s.[385] The M25 is the second-longest ring-road motorway in Europe at 117 miles (188 km) long.[386] The A1 and M1 connect London to Leeds, and Newcastle and Edinburgh.

The hackney carriage (black cab) is a common sight on London streets. Although traditionally black, this is not a requirement with some painted in other colours or bearing advertising.

The Austin Motor Company began making hackney carriages (London taxis) in 1929, and models include Austin FX3 from 1948, Austin FX4 from 1958, with more recent models TXII and TX4 manufactured by London Taxis International. The BBC states, "ubiquitous black cabs and red double-decker buses all have long and tangled stories that are deeply embedded in London’s traditions".[387]

London is notorious for its traffic congestion; in 2009, the average speed of a car in the rush hour was recorded at 10.6 mph (17.1 km/h).[388] In 2003, a congestion charge was introduced to reduce traffic volumes in the city centre. With a few exceptions, motorists are required to pay to drive within a defined zone encompassing much of central London.[389] Motorists who are residents of the defined zone can buy a greatly reduced season pass.[390][391] The London government initially expected the Congestion Charge Zone to increase daily peak period Underground and bus users, reduce road traffic, increase traffic speeds, and reduce queues;[392] however, the increase in private for hire vehicles has affected these expectations. Over the course of several years, the average number of cars entering the centre of London on a weekday was reduced from 195,000 to 125,000 cars – a 35-per-cent reduction of vehicles driven per day.[393][394]

Education

Tertiary education

Imperial College London, a technical research university in South Kensington

London is a major global centre of higher education teaching and research and has the largest concentration of higher education institutes in Europe.[21] According to the QS World University Rankings 2015/16, London has the greatest concentration of top class universities in the world[395][396] and its international student population of around 110,000 is larger than any other city in the world.[397] A 2014 PricewaterhouseCoopers report termed London the global capital of higher education.[398]

King's College London, established by Royal Charter in 1829, is one of the founding colleges of the University of London.

A number of world-leading education institutions are based in London. In the 2021 QS World University Rankings, Imperial College London is ranked No. 8 in the world, University College London (UCL) is ranked 10th, and King's College London (KCL) is ranked 31st.[399] The London School of Economics has been described as the world's leading social science institution for both teaching and research.[400] The London Business School is considered one of the world's leading business schools and in 2015 its MBA programme was ranked second-best in the world by the Financial Times.[401] The city is also home to three of the world's top ten performing arts schools (as ranked by the 2020 QS World University Rankings[402]): the Royal College of Music (ranking 2nd in the world), the Royal Academy of Music (ranking 4th) and the Guildhall School of Music and Drama (ranking 6th).[403]

With students in London[404] and around 48,000 in University of London Worldwide,[405] the federal University of London is the largest contact teaching university in the UK.[406] It includes five multi-faculty universities – City, King's College London, Queen Mary, Royal Holloway and UCL – and a number of smaller and more specialised institutions including Birkbeck, the Courtauld Institute of Art, Goldsmiths, the London Business School, the London School of Economics, the London School of Hygiene & Tropical Medicine, the Royal Academy of Music, the Central School of Speech and Drama, the Royal Veterinary College and the School of Oriental and African Studies.[407] Members of the University of London have their own admissions procedures, and most award their own degrees.

St Mary's Hospital, a constituent of Imperial College School of Medicine, where in 1928 Alexander Fleming discovered penicillin in the second floor laboratory.

A number of universities in London are outside the University of London system, including Brunel University, Imperial College London,[note 6] Kingston University, London Metropolitan University,[408] University of East London, University of West London, University of Westminster, London South Bank University, Middlesex University, and University of the Arts London (the largest university of art, design, fashion, communication and the performing arts in Europe).[409] In addition, there are three international universities in London – Regent's University London, Richmond, The American International University in London and Schiller International University.

London is home to five major medical schoolsBarts and The London School of Medicine and Dentistry (part of Queen Mary), King's College London School of Medicine (the largest medical school in Europe), Imperial College School of Medicine, UCL Medical School and St George's, University of London – and has many affiliated teaching hospitals. It is also a major centre for biomedical research, and three of the UK's eight academic health science centres are based in the city – Imperial College Healthcare, King's Health Partners and UCL Partners (the largest such centre in Europe).[410] Additionally, many biomedical and biotechnology spin out companies from these research institutions are based around the city, most prominently in White City. Founded by pioneering nurse Florence Nightingale at St Thomas' Hospital in 1860, the first nursing school is now part of King's College London.[411] There are a number of business schools in London, including the London School of Business and Finance, Cass Business School (part of City University London), Hult International Business School, ESCP Europe, European Business School London, Imperial College Business School, the London Business School and the UCL School of Management.

London is also home to many specialist arts education institutions, including the Central School of Ballet, London Academy of Music and Dramatic Art (LAMDA; president Benedict Cumberbatch), London College of Contemporary Arts (LCCA), London Contemporary Dance School, National Centre for Circus Arts, Royal Academy of Dramatic Art (RADA; president Sir Kenneth Branagh), Rambert School of Ballet and Contemporary Dance, the Royal College of Art, Sylvia Young Theatre School and Trinity Laban.[412][413] Located in the London borough of Croydon, the BRIT School provides training for the performing arts and the technologies that make performance possible, with actor Tom Holland among their alumni.[414]

Primary and secondary education

The majority of primary and secondary schools and further-education colleges in London are controlled by the London boroughs or otherwise state-funded; leading examples include Ashbourne College, Bethnal Green Academy, Brampton Manor Academy, City and Islington College, City of Westminster College, David Game College, Ealing, Hammersmith and West London College, Leyton Sixth Form College, London Academy of Excellence, Tower Hamlets College, and Newham Collegiate Sixth Form Centre. There are also a number of private schools and colleges in London, some old and famous, such as City of London School, Harrow, St Paul's School, Haberdashers' Aske's Boys' School, University College School, The John Lyon School, Highgate School and Westminster School.

Societies

Important scientific learned societies based in London include the Royal Society—the UK's national academy of sciences and the oldest national scientific institution in the world—founded in 1660,[415] and the Royal Institution, founded in 1799; the basement of the latter is where Michael Faraday first demonstrated electric motion in 1821.[416] Since 1825, the Royal Institution Christmas Lectures have presented scientific subjects to a general audience, and speakers have included aerospace engineer Frank Whittle, naturalist David Attenborough and evolutionary biologist Richard Dawkins.[417]

Culture

Leisure and entertainment

Leisure is a major part of the London economy. A 2003 report attributed a quarter of the entire UK leisure economy to London[418] at 25.6 events per 1000 people.[419] The city is one of the four fashion capitals of the world, and, according to official statistics, is the world's third-busiest film production centre, presents more live comedy than any other city,[420] and has the biggest theatre audience of any city in the world.[421]

Within the City of Westminster in London, the entertainment district of the West End has its focus around Leicester Square, where London and world film premieres are held, and Piccadilly Circus, with its giant electronic advertisements.[422] London's theatre district is here, as are many cinemas, bars, clubs, and restaurants, including the city's Chinatown district (in Soho), and just to the east is Covent Garden, an area housing speciality shops. The city is the home of Andrew Lloyd Webber, whose musicals have dominated West End theatre since the late 20th century.[423] Agatha Christie's The Mousetrap, the world's longest-running play, has been performed in the West End since 1952.[424] The Laurence Olivier Awards–named after Laurence Olivier–are given annually by the Society of London Theatre. The Royal Ballet, English National Ballet, Royal Opera, and English National Opera are based in London and perform at the Royal Opera House, the London Coliseum, Sadler's Wells Theatre, and the Royal Albert Hall, as well as touring the country.[425]

Scene of the annual Notting Hill Carnival, 2014

Islington's 1 mile (1.6 km) long Upper Street, extending northwards from Angel, has more bars and restaurants than any other street in the UK.[426] Europe's busiest shopping area is Oxford Street, a shopping street nearly 1 mile (1.6 km) long, making it the longest shopping street in the UK. It is home to vast numbers of retailers and department stores, including Selfridges flagship store.[427] Knightsbridge, home to the equally renowned Harrods department store, lies to the south-west. Opened in 1760 with its flagship store on Regent Street since 1881, Hamleys is the oldest toy store in the world.[428] Madame Tussauds wax museum opened in Baker Street in 1835.[429]

London is home to designers Vivienne Westwood, Galliano, Stella McCartney, Manolo Blahnik, and Jimmy Choo, among others; its renowned art and fashion schools make it one of the four international centres of fashion. London offers a great variety of cuisine as a result of its ethnically diverse population. Gastronomic centres include the Bangladeshi restaurants of Brick Lane and the Chinese restaurants of Chinatown.[430] Chinese takeaways are located throughout London, as are Indian restaurants which provide Indian and Anglo-Indian cuisine.[431] Around 1860, the first fish and chips shop in London (and contender for the oldest) was opened by Joseph Malin, a Jewish immigrant, in Bow, east London.[387][432] The full English breakfast dates from the Victorian era, and many cafe's in London serve a full English throughout the day.[433] As of 2022 London has five three Michelin star restaurants, including Restaurant Gordon Ramsay in Chelsea.[434] Many hotels in London provide a traditional afternoon tea service, such as the Oscar Wilde Lounge at the Hotel Café Royal in Piccadilly, and a themed tea service is also available, for example an Alice in Wonderland themed afternoon tea served at the Egerton House Hotel, and Charlie and the Chocolate Factory themed afternoon tea at One Aldwych in Covent Garden.[435][436][437]

Shakespeare's Globe is a modern reconstruction of the Globe Theatre on the south bank of the Thames.

There is a variety of annual events, beginning with the relatively new New Year's Day Parade, a fireworks display at the London Eye; the world's second largest street party, the Notting Hill Carnival, is held on the late August Bank Holiday each year. Traditional parades include November's Lord Mayor's Show, a centuries-old event celebrating the annual appointment of a new Lord Mayor of the City of London with a procession along the streets of the city, and June's Trooping the Colour, a formal military pageant performed by regiments of the Commonwealth and British armies to celebrate the Queen's Official Birthday.[438] The Boishakhi Mela is a Bengali New Year festival celebrated by the British Bangladeshi community. It is the largest open-air Asian festival in Europe. After the Notting Hill Carnival, it is the second-largest street festival in the United Kingdom attracting over 80,000 visitors from across the country.[439] First held in 1862, the RHS Chelsea Flower Show (run by the Royal Horticultural Society) takes place over five days in May every year.[440]

LGBT scene

The first gay bar in London in the modern sense was The Cave of the Golden Calf, established as a night club in an underground location at 9 Heddon Street, just off Regent Street, in 1912 and became a haunt for the wealthy, aristocratic and bohemian.[441] While London has been an LGBT tourism destination, after homosexuality was decriminalized in England in 1967 gay bar culture became more visible, and from the early 1970s Soho (and in particular Old Compton Street) gradually became the centre of the London LGBT community.[442] G-A-Y based at Heaven is a long-running night club. Wider British cultural movements have influenced LGBT culture, for example the emergence of glam rock in the UK in the early 1970s via Bolan and Bowie saw a generation of teeny-boppers begin playing with the idea of androgyny, and the West End musical, The Rocky Horror Show, which debuted in London in 1973, is also widely said to have been an influence on countercultural and sexual liberation movements.[443] The Blitz Kids (which included Boy George) frequented the Tuesday club-night at Blitz in Covent Garden, helping launch the New Romantic subcultural movement in the late 1970s.[444] Today the annual London Pride Parade and the London Lesbian and Gay Film Festival are held in the city.[442]

Literature, film and television

Sherlock Holmes Museum in Baker Street, bearing the number 221B

London has been the setting for many works of literature. The pilgrims in Geoffrey Chaucer's late 14th-century Canterbury Tales set out for Canterbury from London—specifically, from the Tabard inn, Southwark. William Shakespeare spent a large part of his life living and working in London; his contemporary Ben Jonson was also based there, and some of his work, most notably his play The Alchemist, was set in the city.[445] A Journal of the Plague Year (1722) by Daniel Defoe is a fictionalisation of the events of the 1665 Great Plague.[445]

The literary centres of London have traditionally been hilly Hampstead and (since the early 20th century) Bloomsbury. Writers closely associated with the city are the diarist Samuel Pepys, noted for his eyewitness account of the Great Fire; Charles Dickens, whose representation of a foggy, snowy, grimy London of street sweepers and pickpockets has been a major influence on people's vision of early Victorian London; and Virginia Woolf, regarded as one of the foremost modernist literary figures of the 20th century.[445] Later important depictions of London from the 19th and early 20th centuries are Arthur Conan Doyle's Sherlock Holmes stories.[445] Also of significance is Letitia Elizabeth Landon's Calendar of the London Seasons (1834). Modern writers pervasively influenced by the city include Peter Ackroyd, author of a "biography" of London, and Iain Sinclair, who writes in the genre of psychogeography. In the 1940s, George Orwell wrote essays in the London Evening Standard, most notably "A Nice Cup of Tea", which concerned the nation's methods on making tea, and "The Moon Under Water", which provided a detailed description of his ideal pub.[446] In 1958, author Michael Bond created Paddington Bear, a refugee found in London Paddington station by the Brown family who adopt him. Paddington has been adapted for the screen, including Paddington (2014) which features the calypso song "London is the Place for Me".[447]

Opened in 1937, the Odeon cinema in Leicester Square hosts numerous European and world film premieres.

London has played a significant role in the film industry. Major studios within or bordering London include Pinewood, Elstree, Ealing, Shepperton, Twickenham, and Leavesden, with the James Bond and Harry Potter series among many notable films produced here.[448][449] Working Title Films has its headquarters in London.[450] A post-production community is centred in Soho, and London houses six of the world’s largest visual effects companies, such as Framestore.[451] The Imaginarium, a digital performance-capture studio, was founded by Andy Serkis.[452] London has been the setting for films including Oliver Twist (1948), Scrooge (1951), Peter Pan (1953), The 101 Dalmatians (1961), My Fair Lady (1964), Mary Poppins (1964), Blowup (1966), A Clockwork Orange (1971), The Long Good Friday (1980), The Great Mouse Detective (1986), Notting Hill (1999), Love Actually (2003), V for Vendetta (2005), Sweeney Todd: The Demon Barber of Fleet Street (2008) and The King's Speech (2010). Notable actors and filmmakers from London include; Charlie Chaplin, Alfred Hitchcock, Michael Caine, Emma Thompson, Gary Oldman, Guy Ritchie, Christopher Nolan, Alan Rickman, Jude Law, Helena Bonham Carter, Idris Elba, Tom Hardy, Keira Knightley and Daniel Day-Lewis. Ealing comedies have featured Alec Guinness, Hammer Horrors have starred Christopher Lee, while Richard Curtis's rom-coms have featured Hugh Grant. The largest cinema chain in the country, Odeon Cinemas was founded in London in 1928 by Oscar Deutsch.[453] First held in 1949, since 2017 the British Academy Film Awards (BAFTAs) have taken place at the Royal Albert Hall. Founded in 1957, the BFI London Film Festival takes place over two weeks every October.[454]

London is a major centre for television production, with studios including Television Centre, ITV Studios, Sky Campus and Fountain Studios; the latter hosted the original talent shows, Pop Idol, The X Factor, and Britain's Got Talent, before each format was exported around the world.[455][456] Formerly a franchise of ITV, Thames Television featured comedians such as Benny Hill and Rowan Atkinson (Mr. Bean was first screened by Thames), while Talkback produced Da Ali G Show which featured Sacha Baron Cohen as Ali G, a faux-streetwise gangster from Staines, west of London.[457] Many television shows have been set in London, including the popular television soap opera EastEnders, broadcast by the BBC since 1985.[458]

Museums, art galleries and libraries

London is home to many museums, galleries, and other institutions, many of which are free of admission charges and are major tourist attractions as well as playing a research role. The first of these to be established was the British Museum in Bloomsbury, in 1753.[459] Originally containing antiquities, natural history specimens, and the national library, the museum now has 7 million artefacts from around the globe. In 1824, the National Gallery was founded to house the British national collection of Western paintings; this now occupies a prominent position in Trafalgar Square.[460]

The British Library is the second largest library in the world, and the national library of the United Kingdom.[461][462][463] There are many other research libraries, including the Wellcome Library and Dana Centre, as well as university libraries, including the British Library of Political and Economic Science at LSE, the Central Library at Imperial, the Maughan Library at King's, and the Senate House Libraries at the University of London.[464][465]

In the latter half of the 19th century the locale of South Kensington was developed as "Albertopolis", a cultural and scientific quarter. Three major national museums are there: the Victoria and Albert Museum (for the applied arts), the Natural History Museum, and the Science Museum. The National Portrait Gallery was founded in 1856 to house depictions of figures from British history; its holdings now comprise the world's most extensive collection of portraits.[466] The national gallery of British art is at Tate Britain, originally established as an annexe of the National Gallery in 1897. The Tate Gallery, as it was formerly known, also became a major centre for modern art. In 2000, this collection moved to Tate Modern, a new gallery housed in the former Bankside Power Station which is accessed by pedestrians north of the Thames via the Millennium Bridge.[467]

Music

The Royal Albert Hall hosts concerts and musical events, including The Proms which are held every summer, as well as cinema screenings of films accompanied with live orchestral music.

London is one of the major classical and popular music capitals of the world and hosts major music corporations, such as Universal Music Group International and Warner Music Group, and countless bands, musicians and industry professionals. The city is also home to many orchestras and concert halls, such as the Barbican Arts Centre (principal base of the London Symphony Orchestra and the London Symphony Chorus), the Southbank Centre (London Philharmonic Orchestra and the Philharmonia Orchestra), Cadogan Hall (Royal Philharmonic Orchestra) and the Royal Albert Hall (The Proms).[425] The Proms, an eight-week summer season of daily orchestral classical music, ends with the Last Night of the Proms (works by Edward Elgar, Henry Wood, Thomas Arne and Hubert Parry feature at the climax). London's two main opera houses are the Royal Opera House and the London Coliseum (home to the English National Opera).[425] The UK's largest pipe organ is at the Royal Albert Hall. Other significant instruments are in cathedrals and major churches—the church bells of St Clement Danes feature in the 1744 nursery rhyme "Oranges and Lemons", and the lyrics journey through churches and bells of 18th century London.[468] Several conservatoires are within the city: Royal Academy of Music, Royal College of Music, Guildhall School of Music and Drama and Trinity Laban.

Abbey Road Studios was given grade II listed status for its "cultural and historical importance" in 2010.[469]

London has numerous venues for rock and pop concerts, including the world's busiest indoor venue, the O2 Arena,[470] and Wembley Arena, as well as many mid-sized venues, such as Brixton Academy, the Hammersmith Apollo and the Shepherd's Bush Empire.[425] Several music festivals, including the Wireless Festival, Lovebox and Hyde Park's British Summer Time, are held in London.[471]

The city is home to the original Hard Rock Cafe and the Abbey Road Studios, where The Beatles recorded many of their hits. In the 1960s, 1970s and 1980s, musicians and groups like Elton John, Pink Floyd, David Bowie, Queen, The Kinks, Cliff Richard, The Rolling Stones, The Who, Eric Clapton, Led Zeppelin, Iron Maiden, T. Rex, Fleetwood Mac, Elvis Costello, Dire Straits, Cat Stevens, The Police, The Cure, Madness, Culture Club, Dusty Springfield, Phil Collins, Rod Stewart, Status Quo and Sade, derived their sound from the streets and rhythms of London.[472][473]

London was instrumental in the development of punk music, with figures such as the Sex Pistols, The Clash and fashion designer Vivienne Westwood all based in the city.[474][475] Other artists to emerge from the London music scene include George Michael, Kate Bush, Seal, the Pet Shop Boys, Siouxsie and the Banshees, Bush, the Spice Girls, Jamiroquai, Blur, The Prodigy, Gorillaz, Mumford & Sons, Coldplay, Amy Winehouse, Adele, Sam Smith, Ed Sheeran, Ellie Goulding, Dua Lipa and Florence and the Machine.[476][477] Artists from London with a Caribbean influence include Hot Chocolate, Billy Ocean, Soul II Soul and Eddy Grant, with the latter fusing reggae, soul and samba with rock and pop.[478] London is also a centre for urban music. In particular the genres UK garage, drum and bass, dubstep and grime evolved in the city from the foreign genres of house, hip hop, and reggae, alongside local drum and bass. Music station BBC Radio 1Xtra was set up to support the rise of local urban contemporary music both in London and in the rest of the United Kingdom. The British Phonographic Industry's annual popular music awards, the Brit Awards, are held in London, usually in February.[479]

Recreation

Parks and open spaces

Hyde Park (with Kensington Gardens in foreground) has been a popular public space since it opened in 1637

A 2013 report by the City of London Corporation said that London is the "greenest city" in Europe with 14,164 hectares (35,000 acres) of public parks, woodlands and gardens.[480] The largest parks in the central area of London are three of the eight Royal Parks, namely Hyde Park and its neighbour Kensington Gardens in the west, and Regent's Park to the north.[481] Hyde Park in particular is popular for sports and sometimes hosts open-air concerts. Regent's Park contains London Zoo, the world's oldest scientific zoo, and is near Madame Tussauds Wax Museum.[482][483] Primrose Hill, immediately to the north of Regent's Park, at 256 feet (78 m)[484] is a popular spot from which to view the city skyline.

Close to Hyde Park are smaller Royal Parks, Green Park and St. James's Park.[485] A number of large parks lie outside the city centre, including Hampstead Heath and the remaining Royal Parks of Greenwich Park to the southeast[486] and Bushy Park and Richmond Park (the largest) to the southwest,[487][488] Hampton Court Park is also a royal park, but, because it contains a palace, it is administered by the Historic Royal Palaces, unlike the eight Royal Parks.[489]

Close to Richmond Park is Kew Gardens, which has the world's largest collection of living plants. In 2003, the gardens were put on the UNESCO list of World Heritage Sites.[490] There are also parks administered by London's borough Councils, including Victoria Park in the East End and Battersea Park in the centre. Some more informal, semi-natural open spaces also exist, including the 320-hectare (790-acre) Hampstead Heath of North London,[491] and Epping Forest, which covers 2,476 hectares (6,118 acres)[492] in the east. Both are controlled by the City of London Corporation.[493][494] Hampstead Heath incorporates Kenwood House, a former stately home and a popular location in the summer months when classical musical concerts are held by the lake, attracting thousands of people every weekend to enjoy the music, scenery and fireworks.[495]

Epping Forest is a popular venue for various outdoor activities, including mountain biking, walking, horse riding, golf, angling, and orienteering.[496]

Walking

The Horse Ride is a tree tunnel (route overhung by trees) on the western side of Wimbledon Common.

Walking is a popular recreational activity in London. Areas that provide for walks include Wimbledon Common, Epping Forest, Hampton Court Park, Hampstead Heath, the eight Royal Parks, canals and disused railway tracks.[497] Access to canals and rivers has improved recently, including the creation of the Thames Path, some 28 miles (45 km) of which is within Greater London, and The Wandle Trail; this runs 12 miles (19 km) through South London along the River Wandle, a tributary of the River Thames.[498]

Other long-distance paths, linking green spaces, have also been created, including the Capital Ring, the Green Chain Walk, London Outer Orbital Path ("Loop"), Jubilee Walkway, Lea Valley Walk, and the Diana, Princess of Wales Memorial Walk.[497]

Sport

Wembley Stadium, home of the England football team and the FA Cup Final, has a seating capacity of 90,000. It is the UK's biggest stadium.[499]
Centre Court at Wimbledon. Held every June and July, Wimbledon is the oldest tennis tournament in the world, and the only major played on grass.
Twickenham, home of the England national rugby union team, has a capacity of 82,000 seats.

London has hosted the Summer Olympics three times: in 1908, 1948, and 2012,[500][501] making it the first city to host the modern Games three times.[34] The city was also the host of the British Empire Games in 1934.[502] In 2017, London hosted the World Championships in Athletics for the first time.[503]

London's most popular sport is football, and it has seven clubs in the English Premier League in the 2022–23 season: Arsenal, Brentford, Chelsea, Crystal Palace, Fulham, Tottenham Hotspur, and West Ham United.[504] Other professional teams in London are AFC Wimbledon, Barnet, Bromley, Charlton Athletic, Dagenham & Redbridge, Leyton Orient, Millwall, Queens Park Rangers and Sutton United.

From 1924, the original Wembley Stadium was the home of the English national football team. It hosted the 1966 FIFA World Cup Final, with England defeating West Germany, and served as the venue for the FA Cup Final as well as rugby league's Challenge Cup final.[505] The new Wembley Stadium serves exactly the same purposes and has a capacity of 90,000.[506]

Two Premiership Rugby union teams are based in London, Harlequins and London Irish.[507] Ealing Trailfinders, Richmond and Saracens play in the RFU Championship and other rugby union clubs in the city include London Scottish, Rosslyn Park F.C., Westcombe Park R.F.C. and Blackheath F.C. Twickenham Stadium in south-west London hosts home matches for the England national rugby union team and has a capacity of 82,000 now that the new south stand has been completed.[508]

While rugby league is more popular in the north of England, there are two professional rugby league clubs in London – the London Broncos in the second-tier RFL Championship, who play at the Trailfinders Sports Ground in West Ealing, and the third-tier League 1 team, the London Skolars from Wood Green, Haringey.

One of London's best-known annual sports competitions is the Wimbledon Tennis Championships, held at the All England Club in the south-western suburb of Wimbledon since 1877.[509] Played in late June to early July, it is the oldest tennis tournament in the world and widely considered the most prestigious.[510][511][512]

London has two Test cricket grounds, Lord's (home of Middlesex C.C.C.) in St John's Wood[513] and the Oval (home of Surrey C.C.C.) in Kennington.[514] Lord's has hosted four finals of the Cricket World Cup and is known as the Home of Cricket.[515] Other key events are the annual mass-participation London Marathon, in which some 35,000 runners attempt a 26.2-mile (42.2 km) course around the city,[516] and the University Boat Race on the Thames from Putney to Mortlake.[517]

Notable people

See also

Notes

  1. ^ See also: Independent city § National capitals
  2. ^ The Greater London Authority consists of the Mayor of London and the London Assembly. The London Mayor is distinguished from the Lord Mayor of London, who heads the City of London Corporation running the City of London.
  3. ^ According to the European Statistical Agency (Eurostat), London had the largest Larger Urban Zone in the EU. Eurostat uses the sum of the populations of the contiguous urban core and the surrounding commuting zone as its definition.
  4. ^ London is not a city in the usual UK sense of having city status granted by the Crown.
  5. ^ According to the Collins English Dictionary definition of 'the seat of government',[163] London is not the capital of England, as England does not have its own government. According to the Oxford English Reference Dictionary[164] definition of 'the most important town' and many other authorities.[165]
  6. ^ Imperial College London was a constituent college of the University of London between 1908 and 2007. Degrees during this time were awarded by the federal university; however, the college now issues its own degrees.

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