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중국

China
중화인민공화국
中华人民共和国 (중국어)
조그후아 레닌 귄게구오 (피닌)
국가:义勇军进行曲
예잉쥔 진싱크
"자원봉사단의 행진곡"
Land controlled by the People's Republic of China shown in dark green; land claimed but uncontrolled shown in light green.
중화인민공화국이 지배하는 땅은 짙은 녹색으로 표시되고, 소유권이 있지만 통제되지 않는 땅은 연한 녹색으로 표시된다.
자본베이징
39°55˚N 화씨 116°23°E/39.917°N 116.383°E/ 39.917; 116.383
공용어표준 중국어[a]
인식된 지역 언어
공식 대본중국어 간체[b]
민족군
(2020)[1]
종교
(2020)[2]
데모닉중국어
정부유니타리 마르크스-레닌주의[3] 일당의 사회주의의 공화국의[4]
시진핑
리커창 시
리잔수
왕양
입법부전국인민대표대회
포메이션
c.기원전 2070년
기원전 221년
1912년 1월 1일
1949년 10월 1일
1954년 9월 20일
1982년 12월 4일
1999년 12월 20일
면적
• 합계
9,596,961km2(3,705,407 sqmi)([f][7]3/4일)
• 물(%)
2.8[g]
인구
• 2021년 인구 조사
Neutral increase1,412,600,000[9](1차)
• 밀도
145[10]/km2(375.5/sq mi)(83번째)
GDP (PPP)2022년 견적
• 합계
Increase29조 4천억[11] 달러(1위)
• 1인당
Increase$20,667[11] (70위)
GDP (iii)2022년 견적
• 합계
Increase18조 4600억[11] 달러(2위)
• 1인당
Increase1만2990달러[11](56위)
지니 (2018)Negative increase46.7[12]
높은
HDI (2019)Increase0.761[13]
하이 · 85위
통화런민비(元/¥)[h] (CNY)
시간대UTC+8(중국 표준시)
날짜 형식
드라이빙 사이드오른쪽(메인랜드)
왼쪽(홍콩과 마카오)
호출 코드+86(메인랜드)
+852 (홍콩)
+853(마카우)
ISO 3166 코드씨엔
인터넷 TLD

중국(중국어: 中國語; pinyin: Zhongguo)은 공식적으로 중화인민공화국(PRC; 중국어: 中國人民民和国国; pinyin: Zhonghuah Rén Genghghéguo)은 동아시아에 있는 나라다.인구 14억 명이 넘는 세계에서 가장 인구가 많은 나라다.중국은 5개의 지리적 시간대에 걸쳐 있고 14개의 다른 나라들과 국경을 접하고 있는데, 이는 러시아 다음으로 세계에서 두 번째로 많은 나라들이다.약 960만 평방킬로미터(370만 평방미터)의 면적을 가진 이 나라는 세계에서 세 번째 또는번째로 큰 나라다.[i]국가는 23개 ,[j] 5개 자치구, 4개 자치구, 2개 특별행정구(홍콩마카오)로 구성된다.국도는 베이징이다.

중국은 북중국평야의 비옥한 황하 유역에서 세계 최초의 문명국가로 떠올랐다.중국은 1세기부터 19세기까지 대부분의 2천년 동안 세계 최고의 경제 강국 중 하나였다.수천 년 동안 중국의 정치 체제는 기원전 21세기 반(半)레전드 샤 왕조를 시작으로 절대 세습 군주, 즉 왕조에 기반을 두고 있었다.이후 중국은 여러 차례 팽창, 분열, 재통합을 거듭했다.기원전 3세기에 진은 중국의 핵심을 통일하고 최초의 중국 제국을 세웠다.뒤를 이은 한 왕조(기원전 206년–기원전 220년)는 농업과 의료의 향상과 함께 제지, 나침반 등 당시 가장 발달된 기술 중 일부를 보았다.당나라(618~907)와 북송왕조(960~1127)에서 화약가동형의 발명이 4대 발명을 완성했다.당 문화는 아시아에 널리 퍼졌는데, 새로운 실크로드로 인해 무역상들이 메소포타미아아프리카의 뿔까지 오게 되었기 때문이다.근대 중국의 영토 기반을 형성한 중국의 마지막 왕조인 청 왕조는 19세기에 외국 제국주의에 큰 손실입었다.

1912년 신해혁명으로 중화민국(ROC)이 청 왕조를 대체하면서 중국 군주제가 붕괴되었다.중국은 제2차 세계 대전 중에 일본 제국의 침략을 받았다.남북전쟁은 1949년 궈민탕이 이끄는 ROC 정부가 대만 으로 후퇴하는 동안 중국공산당(CP)이 본토에 중화인민공화국을 수립하면서 영토 분열을 초래했다.[k]1971년 이후 유엔이 PRC를 단독 대표국으로 인정했음에도 불구하고 두 국가 모두 중국의 유일한 합법 정부라고 주장하고 있다.중국은 1978년 이후 일련의 경제 개혁을 단행했고, 2001년 세계무역기구(WTO)에 가입했다.

중국은 현재 중앙정부에 의해 단일당 사회주의 공화국으로 통치되고 있다.중국은 유엔 안전보장이사회 상임이사국이자 아시아인프라투자은행, 실크로드펀드, 신개발은행, 상하이협력기구, RCEP 등 여러 다자 및 지역협력기구의 창립 회원국이며, BRICs, G8+5, G20의 회원국이다.APEC동아시아 정상회의그것은 시민의 자유, 정부의 투명성, 언론의 자유, 종교의 자유, 소수민족의 자유에 대한 국제적인 측정에서 가장 낮은 수준에 속한다.중국 당국반체제 인사들과 인권 운동가들로부터 정치적 탄압, 집단 검열, 자국민에 대한 대규모 감시, 시위 폭력 진압 등 광범위한 인권 유린으로 비난을 받아왔다.

중국은 구매력 평가에서 GDP가 세계 1위, 명목 GDP가 세계 2위, 총부가 세계 2위다. 나라는 빠르게 성장하는 주요 경제를 가지고 있으며 세계에서 가장 큰 제조수출국이다.중국은 군인이 세계 최대 상비군을 보유하고 있고 국방예산이 두 번째로 큰 핵보유국이다.

이 1570년 아브라함 오르텔리우스의 지도에 중국(오늘날의 광둥성), 만기(Xanton의 땅), 카타이오(중국체취안의 땅, 수도 캄발루, 두, 대리석 다리 등)가 모두 별개의 지역으로 나타나 있다.

'중국'이라는 단어는 16세기부터 영어에서 사용되어 왔지만, 이 시기에는 중국인들이 직접 사용한 단어는 아니었다.그것의 기원은 포르투갈어, 말레이어, 페르시아어를 통해 고대 인도에서 사용된 산스크리트어 차냐로 거슬러 올라간다.[19]'차이나'는 포르투갈 탐험가 두아르테 바르보사의 1516년 일기를 리처드 에덴이 1555년에 번역한[l] 책에 등장한다.[m][19]바르보사의 용법은 페르시아(ی from)에서 유래되었는데, 이는 차례로 산스크리트 치나(山न ()에서 유래되었다.[24]Cīna는 초기 힌두교 경전에 처음 사용되었는데, 여기에는 마하바랏(기원전 5세기)과 마누법칙(기원전 2세기)이 포함된다.[25]1655년 마르티노 마르티니는 중국이라는 단어가 궁극적으로 진 왕조(기원전 221~206년)의 이름에서 유래되었다고 제안했다.[26][25]비록 인도의 원천에서의 사용이 이 왕조보다 앞서지만, 이 유래는 여전히 다양한 원천에서 주어진다.[27]옥스퍼드 영어사전에 따르면 산스크리트어 단어의 기원은 논쟁의 문제다.[19]대안적인 제안에는 옐랑과 또는 추 주의 이름이 포함된다.[25][28]현대 국가의 공식 명칭은 중화인민공화국(간체 중국어: 中國人民人民国; 전통 중국어: 中國人民人國國; 핀인: Zhonghuah Rénin Gònghéguo)이다.더 짧은 형태는 "중국" Zhongguo (中國; 中國)의 Zhongguo (中國; 中國)이며,[n] 이는 서주 왕조 시대에 왕실의 데메스네를 기준으로 발전한 용어다.[o]그 후 동주(東州) 때 뤄이(현재의 뤄양) 주변 지역에 적용되었다가 중국 중앙 평야에 적용되어 청하에서 가끔 국가의 동의어로 사용되었다.[30]화시아족 '바리아인'의 인식을 구별하기 위한 문화 개념으로 자주 사용되었다.[30]중궈(中國)라는 이름도 영어로 '중왕국(中王國)'으로 번역된다.[32]중국(PRC)은 ROC와 PRC를 구분할 때 본토라고 부르기도 한다.[33][34][35][36]

선사시대

10,000년 된 도자기, 시안렌 동굴 문화 (기원전 18,000–7000년)

고고학적 증거에 따르면 초기 인류는 225만년 전에 중국에 서식했다.[37]불을 사용호모 에렉투스페킹맨의 호민관 화석은 베이징 근처의 저우쿠디안의 동굴에서 발견되었는데,[38] 그것들은 68만년에서 78만년 전 사이까지 거슬러 올라간다.[39]호모 사피엔스의 화석화된 치아는 후난성 다오 현푸얀 동굴에서 발견되었다.[40]기원전 7000년경 자후,[41] 기원전 6000년경 다마이디,[42] 기원전 5800년부터 5400년까지 다디완, 기원전 5천년경 반포 에 중국 원문이 존재하였다.일부 학자들은 기원전 7천 년의 자후 상징이 가장 초기 한문 체계를 구성한다고 제안했다.[41]

초기 왕조 통치

상나라 말기(기원전 14세기) 수도의 폐허인 인수(仁水)

중국의 전통에 따르면, 첫 번째 왕조는 기원전 2100년경에 등장한 시아 왕조였다.[43]시아 왕조는 1천년 동안 지속된 세습 군주제, 즉 왕조를 바탕으로 한 중국의 정치체제의 시작을 알렸다.[44]이 왕조는 1959년 허난의 에를리투에서 초기 청동기 시대의 유적지를 과학적으로 발굴하기 전까지 역사가들에 의해 신화적인 것으로 여겨졌다.[45]이들 유적지가 시아 왕조의 유적인지, 같은 시기의 다른 문화의 유적인지는 여전히 불분명하다.[46]이어지는 상 왕조는 동시대의 기록에 의해 가장 빨리 확인된다.[47]샹은 기원전 17세기부터 11세기까지 중국 동부의 황하 평원을 지배했다.[48]그들의 신탁대본(BC 1500년)[49][50]은 지금까지 발견된[51] 것 중 가장 오래된 형태의 한자로 현대 한자의 직접적인 조상이다.[52]

비록 중앙집권적 권위는 봉건적 군벌들에 의해 서서히 잠식되었지만, 상은 기원전 11세기에서 5세기 사이에 통치한 주나라에 의해 정복되었다.몇몇 주권은 결국 약해진 주주에서 나타나 더 이상 주왕에게 완전히 복종하지 않고, 300년 춘추전국시대에도 끊임없이 서로 전쟁을 벌였다.기원전 5-3세기 전쟁기까지는 오직 7개의 강대국만이 남아 있었다.[53]

황실

중국의 초대 황제인 진시황중국의 만리장성을 형성하기 위해 전쟁국가의 성벽을 단결시킨 것으로 유명하다.그러나 현재의 구조는 대부분 명나라로 거슬러 올라간다.

진나라가 나머지 6개 왕국을 정복하고, 중국을 통일하고, 독재정치의 지배 질서를 확립한 후, 전쟁 주기는 기원전 221년에 끝났다.진의 정왕은 자신을 진나라초대 황제라고 선포했다.그는 중국 전역에 진의 법률가 개혁을 시행했는데, 특히 한자측량, 도로 폭(즉 수레 차축의 길이)과 통화의 강제적인 표준화가 눈에 띄었다.그의 왕조는 광시, 광동, 베트남유에 부족도 정복했다.[54]진 왕조는 불과 15년밖에 지속되지 않았으며, 그의 가혹한 권위주의 정책이 광범위한 반란을 초래했기 때문에 제1대 황제가 죽은 직후 몰락했다.[55][56]

시안양의 황실 도서관이 에 탄 내전을 계기로 기원전 206년에서 CE 220년 사이에 한나라가 출현하여 중국을 통치하면서 한족의 민족명칭에 아직도 기억되고 있는 민중들 사이에 문화적 정체성을 형성하였다.[p][55][56]한족은 중앙아시아, 몽골, 한국, 윈난에 이르기까지 군사작전이 전개되고 난유로부터 광둥성과 베트남 북부 지역이 회복되는 등 제국의 영토를 상당히 확장하였다. 전 총리는 중앙아시아와 소그디아에 관여하면서 실크로드의 육로 개척을 도왔고, 히말라야를 넘어 인도로 향하는 이전의 길을 대신했다.한중은 점차 고대 세계 최대의 경제국이 되었다.[58]한씨의 초기 지방분권과 유교에 유리하게 진법철학을 공식적으로 포기했음에도 불구하고 진씨의 법학 제도와 정책은 한정부와 그 후계자들에 의해 계속 고용되었다.[59]

기원전 2세기 한나라의 확장을 보여주는 지도

한나라가 멸망한 후 삼국지로 알려진 분쟁이 뒤따랐는데,[60] 그 중심 인물들은 후에 중국 문학 사대부 한 곳에서 불멸하였다.그 말미에 진나라에 의해 신속하게 타도되었다.진은 발달장애가 있는 황제가 즉위하자 내전에 빠졌고, 오야만족은 중국 북부를 침략하여 16개 국가로 통치했다.시안베이는 이들을 북위(北衛)로 통일시켰는데, 샤오웬 황제가 전임자의 인종차별 정책을 뒤집고 신하들을 대폭적으로 죄악화하여 대부분 중국문화에 편입시켰다.남쪽에서는 류유 장군이 류송에게 유리하게 진군의 퇴위를 확보했다.이들 주의 다양한 후계자들은 남북 왕조라고 알려지게 되었으며, 이 두 지역은 마침내 581년 수나라에 의해 통일되었다.수나라는 중국을 통해 한나라를 권좌에 복귀시키고 농업과 경제, 제국주의 시험 제도를 개혁하며 대운하를 건설하고 불교를 수호하였다.그러나 그들은 공공사업을 위한 징집과 실패한국 북부에서의 전쟁이 광범위한 불안을 야기시켰을 때 빠르게 무너졌다.[61][62]

이어지는 당나라와 송나라 시대에 중국의 경제, 기술, 문화는 황금기에 접어들었다.[63]당 제국은 서부 지역과 실크로드의 지배권을 유지하여 [64]무역상들을 메소포타미아와 아프리카의 까지 끌어들였고, 수도 장안을 세계적인 도시 중심지로 만들었다.[65]그러나 8세기 안루산 반란으로 황폐화되고 약해졌다.[66]907년 지방군수들이 통치할 수 없게 되자 당나라는 완전히 해체되었다.송나라는 960년 분리주의 정세를 종식시켜 송나라와 거란요의 세력균형을 이루었다.송 장관은 세계 역사상 최초로 지폐를 발행한 정부였으며, 해양 무역과 함께 선진 조선산업이 지원하는 상설 해군을 창설한 최초의 중국 정치였다.[67]

큰 큰으로
청명제 기간 중 강을 따라』의 세부사항, 송나라의 수도 비안징(현재의 카이펑)의 일상을 보여주는 12세기 그림.

10세기에서 11세기 사이에 중국 인구는 1억 명 내외로 두 배로 증가했는데, 주로 중국 중남부 지역의 쌀 재배 확대와 풍부한 식량 잉여 생산 때문이다.송나라 역시 당나라 때 불교의 성장에 대응하여 유교의 부흥을 보았고,[68] 풍경 예술도자가 새로운 차원의 성숙과 복잡성을 갖게 되면서 철학과 예술이 융성하였다.[69][70]그러나 송군의 군사력 약화는 주르첸왕조가 지켜보았다.1127년 송의 휘종황제와 수도 비안징 진-송 전쟁 때 포로로 잡혔다.송씨 잔당들은 중국 남부로 후퇴했다.[71]

몽골의 중국 정복은 1205년 징기스칸서부 샤아점진적으로 정복하면서 시작되었는데,[72] 그는 또한영토를 침략하였다.[73]1271년 몽골지도자 쿠빌라이 칸은 원 왕조를 세웠으며, 원 왕조는 1279년 송 왕조의 마지막 잔재를 정복했다.몽골의 침략 이전까지 송차이나의 인구는 1억 2천만 명이었는데, 이는 1300년 인구조사 때 6000만 명으로 줄어들었다.[74]주원장(周元長)이라는 농민이 1368년 원나라를 무너뜨리고 명나라홍우제(洪武帝)로 세운 반란을 이끌었다.명 왕조 하에서 중국은 예술과 문화가 번창하는 가운데 세계에서 가장 강한 해군 중 하나이자 풍요롭고 번영하는 경제를 발전시키며 또 하나의 황금시대를 누렸다.쩡허 제독이 인도양을 가로질러 명나라 보물 항해를 주도하여 동아프리카까지 도달한 것은 이 시기였다.[75]

명나라 청의 정복과 제국의 팽창

명나라 초기에는 중국의 수도가 난징에서 베이징으로 옮겨졌다.자본주의의 싹을 틔우면서 왕양밍과 같은 철학자들은 개인주의4가지 직업의 평등이라는 개념으로 성리학을 더욱 비판하고 확장시켰다.[76]학자-관료 계층은 조세 불매운동에서 산업과 상업의 버팀목이 되었고, 이는 임진왜란(1592–1598) 병자호란과 함께 국고 침탈로 이어졌다.[77]1644년 베이징은 리지청이 이끄는 농민반군 세력의 연합군에게 붙잡혔다.충전황제는 도시가 함락되자 자살했다.당시 명나라 장군인 우상의와 동맹을 맺은 만주 청나라는 리의 단명 쑨 왕조를 타도하고 이후 청나라의 새로운 수도가 된 베이징을 장악했다.[citation needed]

1644년부터 1912년까지 지속된 청 왕조는 중국의 마지막 황실 왕조였다.명나라 정복(168–1683)으로 2500만 명의 목숨을 앗아갔고 중국 경제는 급격히 위축되었다.[78]남명이 끝난 후, 덩가르 칸국의 추가 정복은 몽골, 티베트, 신장을 제국에 추가시켰다.[79]중앙집권적 독재정권은 농업을 중시하고 상업을 억제하는 정책, 하이진(海進)과 문학적 조사로 대표되는 이념적 통제로 반칭 정서를 억압하기 위해 강화되어 사회·기술적 침체를 초래하였다.[80][81]

8국 동맹은 반외국인 복서와 그들의 청 지지자들을 물리치기 위해 중국을 침략했다.이 이미지는 1901년 복서 의정서가 체결된 후 중국 황궁인 자금성 안에서 기념식을 하는 것을 보여준다.

19세기 중반 청 왕조는 아편전쟁에서 영국과 프랑스와 함께 서구 제국주의를 경험했다.중국은 불평등조약 제1호인 1842년 난징조약에 따라 보상금을 지불하고, 항구를 개방하고, 외국인을 위한 치외법권을 허용하고, 홍콩을 영국[82] 양도할 수 밖에 없었다.제1차 중일 전쟁(1894–1895)은 청나라가 한반도에서 영향력을 상실하는 결과를 낳았고, 대만을 일본에 세습하는 결과를 낳았다.[83]청 왕조도 내부 불안을 겪기 시작했는데, 특히 백련 반란, 1850년대와 1860년대에 중국 남부를 황폐화시킨 실패한 타이핑 반란, 북서부의 둥간 반란(1862–1877)에서 수천만 명이 목숨을 잃었다.1860년대 자강운동의 초기 성공은 1880년대와 1890년대의 잇단 군사 패배로 좌절되었다.[citation needed]

19세기에 위대한 중국인의 디아스포라가 시작되었다.이민으로 인한 손실은 북중국기근(1876~1879년)과 같은 갈등과 재난으로 더해져 9~1300만명이 사망했다.[84]광수황제는 1898년 근대 입헌군주제를 수립하기 위한 개혁안을 입안하였으나, 이러한 계획은 다우거 시황후에게 좌절되었다.1899–1901년의 불운한 외국인 복서 반란은 왕조를 더욱 약화시켰다.비록 치시가 개혁 프로그램을 후원했지만, 1911~1912년 신해혁명은 청나라를 종식시키고 중화민국을 세웠다.[85]중국의 마지막 황제 푸이는 1912년에 퇴위했다.[86]

제2차 세계 대전과 공화국의 수립

아시아 최초의 공화국 중화민국의 건국의 아버지 쑨 야트센.

1912년 1월 1일 중화민국이 수립되었고, 궈민당(KMT 또는 국민당)의 쑨옌센이 임시대통령으로 선포되었다.[87]1912년 2월 12일, 섭정 황후 룽유는 중국의 마지막 황제인 4세 푸이를 대신하여 황실 퇴위령을 봉해, 중국의 5천년의 군주제를 끝냈다.[88]1912년 3월, 1915년 스스로 중국 황제를 선포한 전 청장 원시카이에게 대통령 직이 주어졌다.민중의 비난과 자신의 배양군의 반발에 부딪혀 1916년 퇴위하고 공화국을 다시 수립할 수밖에 없었다.[89]

1916년 위안스카이 사망 이후 중국은 정치적으로 분열되었다.베이징에 본부를 둔 정부는 국제적으로 인정받았지만 사실상 무력했다; 지역 군벌들이 그 영토의 대부분을 지배했다.[90][91]1920년대 후반, 당시 중화민국 육군사관학교 교장이었던 장개석 휘하의 국민당은 총칭 북방 원정대라고 알려진 일련의 능란한 군사정치 공작으로 자력으로 통일할 수 있었다.[92][93]궈민당은 수도를 난징으로 옮기고, 중국을 근대 민주주의 국가로 변모시키기 위한 쑨원의 산민 프로그램에 요약된 정치 발전의 중간 단계인 "정치적 지도"를 시행했다.[94][95]중국의 정치 분단은 중국 내전에서 1927년부터 국민당이 싸워온 공산 주도 인민해방군(PLA)과 치앙이 전투를 벌이는 것을 어렵게 만들었다.이 전쟁은 특히 긴 3월에 PLA가 후퇴한 후, 일본의 침략과 1936년 시안 사건으로 치앙이 제국 일본과 대결할 때까지, 국민당에게는 성공적으로 계속되었다.[96]

장개석마오쩌둥제2차 세계대전 종전 후인 1945년 함께 건배했다.

제2차 세계대전무대인 제2차 중일 전쟁(1937–1945)은 국민당과 공산당의 불안한 동맹을 강요했다.일본군은 민간인들에 대해 수많은 전쟁 만행을 저질렀다. 모두 2천만 명에 달하는 중국 민간인들이 죽었다.[97]으로 추산되는 4만 30만 중국 난징의 도시에만 일제 강점기에 학살당했다.[98]전쟁 중 중국은 영국, 미국, 소련과 함께 '강대국의 신뢰'[99]로 일컬어졌고 유엔의 선언에서 연합국 '빅4'로 인정받았다.[100][101]나머지 3대 강국과 함께 중국은 제2차 세계대전의 4대 동맹국 중 하나였으며, 이후 전쟁의 1차적 승리국 중 하나로 여겨졌다.[102][103]1945년 일본의 항복 이후 페스카도레스를 비롯한 대만은 중국의 지배로 돌아갔다.중국은 승리했지만 전쟁으로 황폐화되고 재정적으로 고갈되었다.국민당과 공산당의 계속된 불신이 내전 재개로 이어졌다.헌법 통치는 1947년에 제정되었지만, 계속되는 불안 때문에, 중국 본토에서는 ROC 헌법의 많은 조항이 시행되지 않았다.[104]

남북전쟁과 인민공화국

마오쩌둥은 1949년 PRC 설립을 선언했다.

중국 남북전쟁의 주요 전투는 1949년 중앙공작국이 중국 본토 대부분을 장악하고, 궈민탕이 대만으로 앞바다로 후퇴하면서 대만하이난, 주변 섬으로만 영토가 축소되면서 끝났다.1949년 10월 1일 마오쩌둥 중앙청장은 베이징 톈안먼 광장에서 열린 신중국 건국 기념식과 취임 열병식에서 중화인민공화국 수립을 공식 선언했다.[105][106]1950년 인민해방군은 ROC에서[107] 하이난(海南)을 포로로 잡아 티베트를 편입시켰다.[108]그러나 남아있는 국민당 세력은 1950년대 내내 중국 서부에서 반란을 일으켰다.[109]

정부는 토지 개혁을 통해 농민들 사이에서 인기를 공고히 했는데, 여기에는 100만에서 200만 명의 지주들이 처형되었다.[110]중국은 독자적인 산업 시스템과 자체 핵무기를 개발했다.[111]중국 인구는 1950년 5억5000만 명에서 1974년 9억 명으로 늘었다.[112]그러나 이상주의적인 대규모 개혁 프로젝트인 '대약진'[113][114]은 1958년부터 1961년 사이에 대부분 기아로 인한 1500만~3500만 명의 사망자를 냈다.1966년 마오쩌둥과 그의 동맹국들은 문화대혁명을 일으켜 1976년 마오쩌둥 사망 때까지 10년 동안 지속된 정치적 비난과 사회적 격변을 촉발시켰다.1971년 10월, PRC는 유엔에서 중화민국을 교체하고, 안보리 상임이사국으로 자리를 잡았다.[115]

新大社

마오쩌둥 사후 4대강화궈펑에게 순식간에 체포되어 문화대혁명의 과잉에 대한 책임을 지게 되었다.덩샤오핑 장로는 1978년 집권해 대대적인 경제개혁을 단행했다.중앙청산소는 시민들의 사생활에 대한 정부의 통제를 느슨하게 했고, 공동체는 점차 가정과 계약된 노동에 찬성하여 해체되었다.이는 중국이 계획경제에서 개방적 시장환경이 점차 확대되는 혼합경제로 이행하는 것을 의미했다.[116]중국은 1982년 12월 4일 현재의 헌법을 채택했다.1989년 천안문 광장에서의 학생 시위 진압은 여러 외국으로부터 중국 정부에 대한 비난과 제재를 가져왔다.[117]

장쩌민, 리펑, 주룽지는 1990년대에 한국을 이끌었다.그들의 행정부 하에서 중국의 경제 성과는 약 1억 5천만 명의 농민들을[by whom?] 빈곤에서 구해냈고 연평균 11.[118][better source needed]2%의 국내 총생산 증가율을 유지했다.영국 홍콩포르투갈 마카오1997년1999년 각각 '하나의 나라,시스템' 원칙에 따라 홍콩마카오 특별행정구역으로 중국에 복귀했다.한국은 2001년 세계무역기구(WTO)에 가입했고 2000년대 후진타오(胡錦濤) 국가주석과 원자바오(溫家寶) 총리 시절에도 높은 경제성장률을 유지했다.하지만, 그 성장은 또한 국가의 자원과 환경에 심각한 영향을 주었고,[119][120] 주요한 사회적 변동을 야기시켰다.[121][122]

중국 공산당 총서기 시진핑 2012년 이후고, 한 자녀 정책과 형벌 system,[128]뿐만 아니라 광대한 안티 부패 균열을 제정하는 새 사람이 되었어 대규모 노력 중국의 경제[123][124](구조적인 청의에서 성장이 둔화되고 고통을 받아 왔다)[125][126][127]의 개혁을 추구했다 판결했다.down.[129]중국은 2013년 글로벌 인프라 투자 프로젝트인 일대일로(一帶一路)를 시작했다.[130]

중화인민공화국은 2021년 7월 1일 베이징 톈안먼 광장에서 대규모 집회를 열고 문화 예술 공연으로 중앙청(중앙청) 창설 100주년을 기념했다.[131]

NASA 월드윈드로부터의 중국의 위성 이미지

건조한 북쪽의 고비 사막과 타클라마칸 사막에서부터 더 습한 남쪽의 아열대 숲까지 중국의 풍경은 광대하고 다양하다.히말라야, 카라코람, 파미르, 톈산 산맥은 중국과 중앙아시아의 많은 지역분리한다.세계에서 3번째로 긴 양쯔강과 6번째로 긴 황하티베트 고원에서 인구 밀도가 높은 동부 해안까지 이어진다.태평양을 따라 중국의 해안이 내지 14,500km(9,000mi) 길고 발해, 노랑, 동 중국과 남한 중국 바다로 둘러싸여 있다.중국은 카자흐스탄 국경을 통해 유라시아 스텝으로 연결되는데, 유라시아 스텝은 육상 실크로드의 조상인 스테페 루트를 통해 신석기 시대부터 동서 간 소통의 동맥이었다.[citation needed]

중국의 영토는 위도 18°와 54°N, 위도 73°와 135°E 사이에 있다.중국의 지리적 중심에는 35°5040.9의 국가기념물 중앙이 표시되어 있다.″N 103°27′7.5″E / 35.844694°N 103.452083°E / 35.844694; 103.452083(중국의 지리 중심)중국의 풍경은 광대한 영토에 따라 크게 다르다.반면 북쪽 끝에서 내 몽골 고원의 가장자리에, 넓은 초원이 우세한 동쪽에, 황해와 동 중국해의 해안을 따라서, 인구 밀도가 높은 광범위한 충적 평원이 있다.중국 남부는 구릉과 낮은 산맥이 지배하고 있고, 중앙동부는 중국 양대 강인 황하양쯔강의 델타(delta)를 주관하고 있다.다른 주요 강으로는 , 메콩, 브라흐마푸트라, 아무르 등이 있다.서쪽에는 주요 산맥, 특히 히말라야 산맥이 자리잡고 있다.높은 고지타클라마칸과 고비사막과 같은 북쪽의 건조한 풍경들 중 특징이다.세계에서 가장 높은 지점인 에베레스트(8848m)는 중국과 네팔레스 국경에 있다.[132]국내 최저점, 세계 3위권인 이곳은 투르판 대공황아잉호(-154m)의 건조호반이다.[133]

중국의 기후는 주로 건기와 습기가 많은 몬순에 의해 겨울과 여름의 기온 차가 뚜렷하게 나타난다.겨울에는 고위도 지역에서 불어오는 북풍이 춥고 건조하며, 여름에는 낮은 위도의 해안 지역에서 불어오는 남풍이 따뜻하고 습하다.[135]

중국의 주요 환경 문제는 사막, 특히 고비사막의 지속적인 팽창이다.[136][137]1970년대 이후 심어진 방벽나무 선은 모래폭풍의 발생 빈도를 줄였지만 가뭄이 장기화되고 농업관행이 좋지 않아 매년 봄 중국 북부를 괴롭히는 먼지폭풍이 발생해 일본과 한국 등 동아시아 다른 지역으로 확산됐다.중국의 환경감시단체인 SEPA는 2007년 중국이 사막화로 인해 연간 4000km2(1500sqmi)의 손실을 보고 있다고 밝혔다.[138]수질, 침식, 공해 방제는 다른 나라와의 관계에서 중요한 문제가 되었다.히말라야 산맥의 빙하가 녹으면 수억 명의 사람들이 물 부족을 겪을 가능성이 있다.[139]학계에 따르면 중국의 기후변화탄소 포획없는 중국 석탄에서 1.5℃(2.7℃)의 전력으로 제한하려면 2045년까지 단계적으로 전력생산을 중단해야 한다.[140]중국 농업 생산성에 대한 공식 정부 통계는 부정부 차원의 생산 과장 때문에 신뢰할 수 없는 것으로 간주되고 있다.[141][142]중국의 많은 지역은 농업에 매우 적합한 기후를 가지고 있으며 중국은 , 밀, 토마토, 가지, 포도, 수박, 시금치, 그리고 다른 많은 농작물들의 세계 최대 생산국이 되었다.[143]

생물다양성

중국은 세계의 주요 생물 지리학 영역북극인도말레이아 두 곳에 위치한 [144]17개의 거대 우주국 중 하나이다.한편, 중국은 34,687종의 동물과 혈관 식물을 보유하고 있으며, 브라질콜롬비아에 이어 세계에서 세 번째로 많은 생물 우주 국가가 되었다.[145]이 나라는 1992년 6월 11일 생물 다양성에 관한 리우데자네이루 협약에 서명했고, 1993년 1월 5일 협약의 당사자가 되었다.[146]이후 국가 생물다양성 전략 및 실행 계획을 수립하였고, 2010년 9월 21일 협약에서 한 가지 수정안이 접수되었다.[147]

중국은 최소 551종의 포유류(세계에서 세 번째로 많은 수), [148]1,221종의 조류(제8위),[149] 424종의 파충류(7위),[150] 333종의 양서류(7위)가 서식하고 있다.[151]중국의 야생동물들은 세계에서 가장 많은 인구를 가진 사람들과 서식지를 공유하고 있으며, 극심한 압력을 받고 있다.중국에서는 서식지 파괴, 공해, 음식, 모피, 전통 한약재료를 위한 밀렵과 같은 인간의 활동으로 인해 적어도 840종의 동물 종들이 위협을 받고 있거나, 취약하거나, 국소 멸종 위기에 처해 있다.[152]멸종위기에 처한 야생동물은 법으로 보호되고 있으며, 2005년 현재 우리나라는 2,349개 이상의 자연보호구역이 있으며, 중국 전체 육지 면적의 15%인 1억 4,995만 헥타르의 총 면적을 차지하고 있다.[153][better source needed]대부분의 야생동물들은 중국 동부와 중부의 핵심 농업 지역에서 제거되었지만, 그들은 남부와 서부의 산지에서 더 잘 자랐다.[154][155]바이지는 2006년 12월 12일에 멸종된 것으로 확인되었다.[156]

중국은 32,000종 이상의 혈관식물을 가지고 있으며,[157] 다양한 종류의 숲이 서식하고 있다.추운 침엽수림이 북부 지역에 우세하여 120종이 넘는 새와 함께 무스, 아시아 흑곰과 같은 동물 종을 부양하고 있다.[158]습한 침엽수림지하층에는 대나무 숲이 무성할 수 있다.고니퍼와 유의 높은 몬탄가 스탠드에서는 대나무가 로도덴드론으로 대체된다.중국 중남부에 우세한 아열대 숲은 희귀한 내생물을 포함한 식물종의 고밀도를 지원한다.열대 우림과 계절 우림은 윈난 과 하이난 섬에 국한되어 있지만, 중국에서 발견된 모든 동식물 종의 4분의 1을 포함하고 있다.[158]중국은 1만 종 이상의 기록된 균류를 가지고 있으며,[159] 그 중 거의 6천 종은 더 높은 균류다.[160]

삼협댐은 세계에서 가장 큰 수력발전댐이다.

중국은 2000년대 초반 산업화 속도가 빨라 환경 악화와 공해로 어려움을 겪어왔다.[161][162]1979년 제정된 환경보호법 같은 규제는 상당히 엄격하지만, 급속한 경제발전에 찬성하는 지역 사회와 공무원들로부터 외면받는 경우가 많아 시행이 저조하다.[163]중국은 대기오염으로 인한 사망자가 인도 다음으로 많은 나라다.대기 오염에 노출되어 약 100만 명의 사망자가 있다.[164][165]중국은 CO2 배출량이 세계 1위지만 1인당 CO2 배출량은 8t에 그쳐 미국(16.1), 호주(16.8), 한국(13.6) 등 선진국보다 현저히 낮다.[166][167]

최근 몇 년간, 중국은 오염을 단속해왔다.시진핑(習近平)[168] 중앙청장은 2014년 3월 전국인민대표대회(전인대) 개막 당시 공해와의 전쟁을 선포했다.거의 2년 동안 지속된 광범위한 논쟁 끝에 의회는 4월에 새로운 환경법을 승인했다.이 새로운 법은 환경 집행 기관에게 큰 처벌권과 많은 벌금을 부과하고, 추가적인 보호가 필요한 지역을 규정하며, 독립된 환경 단체들에게 국내에서 더 많은 운영 능력을 부여한다.[citation needed]2020년 시진핑 중국 공산당 총서기는 파리 기후협정에 따라 2030년 이전에 배출량을 정점을 찍고 2060년까지 탄소중립을 목표로 한다고 발표했다.[169]Climate Action Tracker에 따르면, 이 작업이 완료되면 지구온도 상승이 0.2 - 0.3도 감소할 것으로 예상되며, 이는 "Climate Action Tracker가 추정하는 최대 단일 감소량"[170]이라고 한다.2021년 9월 시진핑(習近平) 국가주석은 중국이 '해외 석탄화력 사업'을 하지 않겠다고 발표했다.그 결정은 배기가스 배출량을 줄이는 데 있어서 "초과적인" 결정이 될 수 있다.일대일로구상에는 이미 2021년 상반기에 이 같은 사업에 대한 자금조달이 포함되지 않았다.[171]

이 나라는 또한 심각한 수질 오염 문제를 가지고 있었다: 2019년에 중국 강의 8.2%가 산업 폐기물과 농업 폐기물로 오염되었다.[172][173]중국은 2018년 산림경관청렴도지수 7.14/10으로 세계 172개국 중 53위를 기록했다.[174]2020년에는 양쯔강의 생태를 보호하기 위해 중국 정부에 의해 대대적인 법이 통과되었다.새로운 법에는 하천변 수력발전사업에 대한 생태보호법 강화, 하천변 1km 이내의 화학공장 금지, 오염산업 이전, 모래 채굴을 엄격히 제한하고 주요 지류와 호수를 포함한 강의 모든 자연수로에 대한 완전한 어업 금지 등이 포함되어 있다..[175]

중국은 또한 2011년에만 520억 달러가 투자되어 재생 에너지 기술의 주요 생산국이며 국내 규모의 재생 에너지 프로젝트에 많은 투자를 하고 있는 등 재생 에너지와 상용화에 있어 세계 최고의 투자국이다.[176][177][178][179][180][181]2015년까지 중국 에너지의 24% 이상이 재생 가능한 원천에서 도출된 반면, 가장 두드러진 것은 수력 발전에서 비롯된 것으로, 197GW의 총 설치 용량이 중국을 세계에서 가장수력 발전 생산국으로 만들었다.[182][183]중국은 또 태양광발전시스템풍력발전시스템설치된 세계 최대 전력용량을 보유하고 있다.[184][185]중국의 온실가스 배출량중국의 재생에너지와 마찬가지로 세계 최대 규모다.[167][186]

PRC의 영토 주장을 보여주는 지도.

중화인민공화국은 러시아에 이어 국토 면적으로 세계에서 두 번째로 큰 나라다.[q][r]중국의 총 면적은 일반적으로 약 9,600,000 km2(3,700,000 sq mi)로 알려져 있다.[187][better source needed]구체적인 면적 수치는 브리태니커 백과사전에 따른 9,572,900km2(3,696,100mi)[188]부터 유엔 인구통계연보,[5] CIA 세계 팩트북에 따른 959만6,961km2(3,705,407mi)까지 다양하다.[8]

중국은 2만2,117km(1만3,743mi)로 세계에서 가장육지 경계를 갖고 있으며, 해안선압록강(암록강) 하구에서 톤킨 만까지 약 1만4,500km(9,000mi)에 걸쳐 있다.[8]중국은 14개국과 국경을 접하고 동아시아의 많은 지역에 걸쳐 뻗어 있으며 동남아시아의 베트남, 라오스, 미얀마(부르마), 남아시아의 인도, 부탄, 네팔, 아프가니스탄, 파키스탄[s], 중앙아시아의 타지키스탄, 키르기스스탄, 카자흐스탄, 내아시아동북아시아러시아, 몽골, 북한과 국경을 접하고 있다.게다가, 중국은 한국, 일본, 베트남, 필리핀과 해양 경계를 공유하고 있다.[citation needed]

중국 헌법에는 중화인민공화국은 '노동계급이 주도하고 노동자와 농민동맹을 바탕으로 한 인민민주주의 독재정권의 지배를 받는 사회주의 국가'라며 국가기관은 '민주적 중앙집권주의의 원칙을 실천해야 한다'[189]고 명시돼 있다.PRC는 공산당이 통치하는 세계 유일의 사회주의 국가 중 하나이다.중국 정부는 여러가지로, 좌익과 corporatist,[191] 많은 지역에 따라 규제를 authoritarian[190]로, 이 중 가장 두드러진 것은 인터넷으로의 무료인 접근 언론의 자유, 집회의 자유 권리를 아이들을 사회 단체들의 자유로운 구성과 rel의 자유에 대한 것처럼 묘사되어 왔다.igion.[192]그것의 현재 정치, 이념, 경제 체제는 지도자들로부터 각각 '협의 민주주의' '인민민주주의 독재' '중국적 특성을 가진 사회주의'(중국 상황에 적응한 마르크스주의) '사회주의 시장경제'라는 별칭으로 불려왔다.[193][194]

중국공산당은 중국의 창당 및 집권 정당이다.

2018년 이후 중국 헌법의 주체는 "중국적 특성을 가진 사회주의가 규정한 특징은 중국 공산당의 지도력"[195]이라고 선언하고 있다.2018년 개정안은 중국 공산당 총서기( 대표)에서 주와 정부에 대한 궁극적인 권력과 권한을 갖고 비공식적인 파라마운트 지도자 역할을 하는 사실상일당국가 지위를 헌법화했다.[195][196]현 총서기는 2012년 11월 15일 취임해 2017년 10월 25일 재선된 시진핑이다.[197]선거제도는 피라미드형이다.지방인민대표대회는 직접 선출하고, 전국인민대표대회의(NPC)까지의 상위급 인민대표대회는 바로 아래급 인민대표대회의 간접적으로 선출한다.[189]

다른 8개 정당은 NPC와 중국인민정치협상회의(CPPCC)에 대표를 두고 있다.[198]중국은 '민주적 중앙주의'[189]라는 레닌주의 원칙을 지지하지만, 비판론자들은 선출된 전국인민대표대회를 '거품 우표' 기구로 묘사하고 있다.[199]

중앙공작소와 인민해방군(PLA)은 모두 연공서열에 따라 선전하기 때문에 뚜렷한 세대별 중국 지도부를 분간할 수 있다.[200]공식 담화에서는 각 그룹의 지도부를 당 이념의 뚜렷한 연장으로 파악한다.역사학자들은 이러한 '세대'를 참고하여 중화인민공화국 정부의 발전 과정에서 다양한 시기를 연구해 왔다.

중국 지도부의[200] 세대
세대 파라마운트 리더 시작 이론
먼저 마오쩌둥 1949 1976 마오쩌둥 사상
1976 1978 투웨이트버
둘째 덩샤오핑 1978 1989 덩샤오핑 이론
세 번째 1989 2002 대표
넷째 후진타오 2002 2012
다섯번째 시진핑 2012

중국은 중국 공산당이 이끄는 일당 국가다.중국 전국 인민 대표 회의 2018년에, 중국이 무한한 시간에 대한 현재 지도자 시진핑에 있대통령(그리고 서기 중국 공산당의)고 독재적인 거버넌스를 만들기 위한 여론의 허가가 대통령 중국의 지주에 연임 제한을 제거하기 위해 국가의 헌법을 바꾸었다.[201][202]대통령전국인민대표대회에서 선출된 십일조의 국가원수.수상정부 수반으로, 4명의 부총리와 각 부처의 장과 위원회장으로 구성된 국무회의를 주재한다.현직 대통령은 시진핑(習近平) 중국 공산당 총서기 겸 중앙군사위원회 위원장을 겸하고 있어 중국 최고지도자로 꼽힌다.현 총리는 중국의 사실상 최고 의사결정기구인 중앙정치국 상무위원도 맡고 있는 리커창이다.[203][204]

시 주석은 2017년 공산당에 대한 지배력 강화와 당 지도부의 단결 유지, '국가부흥의 중국몽' 달성을 주문했다.[193][205]중국의 정치적 우려에는 빈부격차가 커지고 있는 것과 정부의 부패가 포함되어 있다.[206]그럼에도 불구하고 중국 국민의 80~95%가 중앙정부에 대한 만족도를 나타내는 등 정부와 국가경영에 대한 국민적 지지도가 높은 것으로 2011년 조사 결과 나타났다.[207]캐나다 보건연구소의 2020년 조사에서도 COVID-19 대유행 가운데 정보보급에 대한 정부 만족도가 75%인 반면 생필품 전달에 대해서는 67%로 만족하는 것으로 나타났다.[208][209]

행정 구역

중화인민공화국은 공식적으로 23개 성, 5개 자치구([210]각각 지정된 소수집단 포함), 4개 자치구(총칭적으로 "본토 중국"이라 칭함)와 홍콩마카오의 특별행정구역(SARS)으로 나뉘어 있다.지리적으로 중국 본토에 있는 31개 지방 분과는 모두 6개 지역으로 분류할 수 있다.북중국, 동북중국, 동중국, 중남부, 서남중국, 서북중국.[211]

중국은 대만이 중화민국(ROC)의 지배를 받지만 대만23번째 성으로 간주하고 있어 PRC의 주장을 거부하고 있다.[210]반대로, ROC 헌법은 PRC가 지배하는 모든 부서에 대한 주권을 주장한다.[212]

Xinjiang Uyghur Autonomous RegionTibet (Xizang) Autonomous RegionQinghai ProvinceGansu ProvinceSichuan ProvinceYunnan ProvinceNingxia Hui Autonomous RegionInner Mongolia (Nei Mongol) Autonomous RegionShaanxi ProvinceMunicipality of ChongqingGuizhou ProvinceGuangxi Zhuang Autonomous RegionShanxi ProvinceHenan ProvinceHubei ProvinceHunan ProvinceGuangdong ProvinceHainan ProvinceHebei ProvinceHeilongjiang ProvinceJilin ProvinceLiaoning ProvinceMunicipality of BeijingMunicipality of TianjinShandong ProvinceJiangsu ProvinceAnhui ProvinceMunicipality of ShanghaiZhejiang ProvinceJiangxi ProvinceFujian ProvinceHong Kong Special Administrative RegionMacau Special Administrative RegionTaiwan ProvinceChina administrative claimed included.svg
About this image
도() (州) 클레임 주
자치구(自治區) 자치구(直辖區) 특별행정구역(特别行政區)
  • Hong Kong / Xianggang (香港特别行政区)
  • Macau / Aomen (澳门特别行政区)

대외 관계

중국의 외교 관계

PRC는 175개국과 외교관계를 맺고 있으며 162개국에 대사관을 두고 있다.2019년 중국은 세계에서 외교망이 가장 컸다.[213][214]그것의 합법성은 중화민국과 몇몇 다른 나라들에 의해 논란이 되고 있다; 따라서 그것은 14억 이상의 인구를 가진, 제한된 인지도의 가장 크고 가장 인구가 많은 국가다.[215]1971년, PRC는 유엔에서 중국의 유일한 대표로서, 그리고 유엔 안전보장이사회의 5개 상임이사국 중 하나로 중화민국을 대체했다.[216]중국은 또한 비동맹운동의 전 회원국이자 지도자였으며 지금도 개발도상국의 옹호자로 간주하고 있다.[217]중국은 브라질 러시아 인도 남아프리카공화국 등과 함께 신흥 주요국 브릭스(BRICS) 그룹의 일원으로 2011년 4월 하이난 산야에서 제3차 공식 정상회담을 개최했다.[218]

중국은 일중정책 해석에 따라 상대국이 대만에 대한 자신의 주장을 인정하고 중화민국 정부와 공식적인 관계를 맺는 것을 외교관계 수립의 전제조건으로 삼았다.[citation needed]중국 관리들은 특히 [219]군비 판매 문제에 있어서 외국이 대만에 외교적인 제안을 한 경우 여러 번 항의해 왔다.[220]

현재 중국 외교정책의 상당 부분은 저우언라이 총리의 '평화공존 5원칙'에 입각한 것으로 알려졌으며, 이념적 차이에도 불구하고 국가 간 외교관계를 장려하는 '일률성 없는 조화' 개념에 의해 추진되기도 한다.[221]이 정책은 중국이 짐바브웨, 북한, 이란과 같은 서구 국가들에 의해 위험하거나 억압적인 것으로 여겨지는 국가들을 지원하도록 이끌었을지도 모른다.[222]중국은 러시아와 경제, 군사적으로 밀접한 관계를 맺고 있으며,[223] 두 나라는 유엔 안전보장이사회에서 한 표를 행사하는 경우가 많다.[224][225][226]

무역관계

2014년 5월 21일 중국과 러시아는 4000억 달러 규모의 가스 계약을 체결했다.현재 러시아는 중국에 천연가스를 공급하고 있다.

중국은 2013년 세계 최대 상품 수입국은 물론 수출입 총액으로 측정해 세계 최대 무역국이 됐다.해양 건조 시장의 약 45%를 차지한다.[227][228]2016년까지 중국은 124개국의 최대 교역국이었다.[229]중국은 아세안 국가들의 최대 교역국으로 2015년 총 교역액이 3458억달러로 아세안 전체 교역액의 15.2%를 차지한다.[230]아세안은 중국의 최대 교역국이기도 하다.[231]2020년 중국은 유럽연합(EU)의 상품 교역 규모가 7000억 달러에 육박하는 최대 교역국이 됐다.[232]중국은 아세안, 일본, 한국, 호주, 뉴질랜드와 함께 세계 인구의 30%와 경제생산을 아우르는 세계 최대 자유 무역 지역인 '지역 포괄적 경제 파트너십'에 가입해 있다.[233]중국은 2001년에 세계무역기구(WTO)의 회원이 되었다.2004년에는 지역 안보 이슈를 위한 포럼으로서 완전히 새로운 동아시아 정상회의(EAS) 틀을 제안했다.[234]아세안 플러스 3호, 인도, 호주, 뉴질랜드 등이 포함된 EAS는 2005년 창립총회를 열었다.[235]

중국은 미국과 길고 복잡한 무역 관계를 맺고 있다.2000년 미국 의회는 중국과의 "영구적인 정상 무역 관계"(PNTR)를 승인하여 대부분의 다른 국가의 상품과 동일한 낮은 관세율로 중국 수출을 허용했다.[236]중국은 가장 중요한 수출시장인 미국과의 무역흑자가 상당하다.[237]2010년대 초 미국 정치권은 중국 위안화가 현저히 저평가돼 중국에 불공정한 무역우위를 줬다고 주장했다.[238][239][240][needs update]

중국은 21세기 전환 이후 아프리카 국가들과 무역과 상호 협력을 위해 협력하는 정책을 따랐고,[241][242][243] 2019년 중-아프리카 무역은 총 2080억 달러로 20년 동안 20배나 성장했다.[244]매디슨 콘던에 따르면 "중국은 세계은행보다 아프리카에 더 많은 인프라 프로젝트를 재원을 조달하고, 아프리카 신흥국에 수십억 달러의 저금리 대출을 제공한다"[245]고 한다.중국은 유럽연합과 광범위하고 고도로 다각화된 무역 관계를 유지하고 있다.[232]중국은 남미 주요국과의 교역 관계를 더욱 강화했으며 브라질, 칠레, 페루, 우루과이, 아르헨티나 등 여러 나라의 최대 교역국이다.[246][247]

중국의 일대일로(一帶一路)는 지난 6년간 대폭 확대됐으며 2020년 4월 현재 138개국과 30개 국제기구가 참여하고 있다.외교 정책 관계 강화와 더불어, 여기서는 특히 효율적인 수송 경로 구축에 초점을 맞추고 있다.특히 동아프리카와 유럽과의 연계가 있는 해상 실크로드에 초점을 맞추고 있으며, 과다르, 콴탄, 함반토타, 피라에우스, 트리에스테 등 수많은 항구에 중국 투자나 관련 의사 선언이 있다.그러나 벨트와 도로 프로그램에 따라 이루어진 이 대출들 중 상당수는 지속할 수 없으며 중국은 채무국들로부터 많은 부채 탕감 요구에 직면해 있다.[248][249]

영토 분쟁

타이완
PRC와 인근 국가들 간의 영토 분쟁을 그린 지도더 큰 지도를 보려면 여기를 참조하십시오.

중국 남북전쟁 이후 설립된 이래 PRC는 오늘날 흔히 대만이라고 알려진 별도의 정치주체인 중화민국(ROC)이 통치하는 영토를 영토의 일부로 주장해 왔다.대만 섬을 타이완 성, 킨멘 성, 마츠 성 등을 푸젠 성의 일부로 간주하고, 남중국해의 ROC 통제권을 하이난성광둥성의 일부로 섬긴다.이러한 주장은 PRC가 일중 정책을 가장 중요한 외교 원칙 중 하나로 취급하는 등 복잡한 크로스스트레이트 관계 때문에 논란이 되고 있다.[250][better source needed]

육지 국경 분쟁

중국은 주변 14개국 중 12개국과 국경을 맞대고 실질적인 타협을 추구해 왔다.[251][252][253]중국은 2020년 현재 인도, 부탄과만 영토 분쟁을 벌이고 있다.[citation needed]

해상 국경 분쟁

중국 추가로 여러 나라와 함께 동과 남한 중국 해에 센카쿠 제도와, 그 스카버러 암초 같은 몇가지 작은 섬들, 소유권을 둘러싸해상 분쟁에 관여하고 있다.[254][255]

사회정치적 이슈와 인권

2017년 정부 구금 중 장기부전으로 숨진 중국 노벨평화상 수상자 류샤오보 추모 행진

중국은 카메라, 안면인식 소프트웨어, 센서, 개인기술 감시, 사회신용시스템 등의 대규모 스파이 네트워크를 자국 거주자에 대한 사회적 통제의 수단으로 활용하고 있다.[256]중국 민주화운동과 사회운동가, 일부 공산당원들은 사회정치적 개혁의 필요성을 믿고 있다.중국은 1970년대 이후 경제적 사회적 통제가 크게 완화됐지만 정치적 자유는 여전히 엄격히 제한돼 있다.중화인민공화국 헌법은 시민의 '근본적 권리'에는 언론의 자유, 언론의 자유, 언론의 자유, 공정한 재판을 받을 권리, 종교의 자유, 보편적 참정권, 재산권이 있다고 명시하고 있다.그러나 실제로 이러한 조항들은 국가의 형사 기소에 대한 중대한 보호를 제공하지 않는다.[257][258]비록 정부 정책과 집권 공산당에 대한 일부 비판은 용인되지만, 가장 두드러진 인터넷 상의 정치적 발언과 정보에 대한 검열은 집단 행동을 막기 위해 일상적으로 사용된다.[259][260][261]중국은 2020년까지 모든 국민들에게 그들이 어떻게 행동하는지에 따라 개인적인 "사회적 신용" 점수를 부여할 계획이다.[262][needs update]2014년 처음 시범 운영된 사회신용 시스템은 빅데이터 분석 기술을 활용한 대량 감시의 한 형태로 꼽힌다.[263][264]

다수의 외국 정부, 외신, 비정부기구(NGO)는 재판 없이 구금, 강제 낙태,[265] 강제 고백, 고문, 기본권 제한,[192][266] 사형제 남용 등 광범위한 민권 침해를 주장하며 중국의 인권 기록을 비판했다.[267][268]정부는 1989년 천안문 사태 때처럼 '사회적 안정'에 잠재적 위협이 될 것으로 여기는 민중 시위와 시위를 진압한다.[269]

서방 정부들은 중국이 위구르스를 상대로 집단학살을 자행하고 100만 명 이상의 위구르족다른 신장 소수민족들을 수용소에 감금했다고 비난했다.[270]

중국 정부는 티베트[271][272] 신장 지역에서 폭력적인 경찰 단속과 종교 탄압 [273]등 대규모 탄압과 인권 유린 혐의를 정기적으로 받고 있다.[274][275]중국 이슬람교도 위구르 소수민족인 최소 100만 명이 억류자들의 정치적 사고와 신분, 종교적 신념을 바꾸기 위해 '사회교육훈련소'로 불리는 집단수용소에 구금됐다.[276]미 국무부에 따르면 이들 시설에서는 정치적 세뇌, 고문, 신체적·정신적 학대, 강제소독, 성학대, 강제노역 등의 행위가 일반적이다.[277]주 정부는 또한 신장 지역의 긴장 상황에 대한 역외 보도를 통제하기 위해 노력해왔고, 그들의 가족들을 억류함으로써 외국 기자들을 위협했다.[278]2020년 보고서에 따르면 중국의 위구르에 대한 처우는 유엔의 대량학살 정의에 부합하고, 여러 단체가 유엔 조사를 요구했다.[279][280]마이크 폼페오 미국 국무장관은 2021년 1월 19일 국무부가 중국이 위구르족을 상대로 '인륜에 반하는 범죄와 천재화'를 자행했다고 판단했다고 발표했다.[281]

2014년과 2017년 퓨 리서치센터의 글로벌 연구에서는 중국 내 종교 관련 사회적 적대행위 순위가 낮거나 중간 수준임에도 불구하고 중국 정부의 종교 제한 조치를 세계 최고로 꼽았다.[282][283]세계노예지수는 2016년 인신매매, 강제노역, 강제결혼, 아동노동, 국가가 강요하는 강제노역 등 인구의 0.25%인 380만 명이 '현대판 노예의 조건'에 살고 있는 것으로 추정했다.국가가 부과한 강제징용 제도는 2013년 정식으로 폐지됐지만, 그 다양한 관행이 어느 정도 중단됐는지는 명확하지 않다.[284]중국 형벌 제도에는 노동 교도소 공장, 유치장, 재교육 수용소 등이 포함되며, 집단적으로는 라오개("노동을 통한 개혁")로 알려져 있다.미국의 라오가이 연구재단은 중국에 노예노동수용소와 수용소가 천 개가 넘는 것으로 추산했다.[285]

2019년, 한 연구는 장기 이식에 관한 400개 이상의 과학 논문들의 대량 철회를 요구했는데, 그 이유는 장기들이 중국 죄수들로부터 비윤리적으로 획득된 것을 우려했기 때문이다.정부는 매년 1만 건의 이식이 발생한다고 밝히고 있지만 파룬궁 연계 IETAC의 보고서는 매년 6만~10만 건의 장기가 이식되고 있다고 주장하면서 이 간극은 사형당한 양심수들에 의해 메워지고 있다고 주장했다.[286]

군대

청두 J-205세대 스텔스 전투기

220만 명에 가까운 현역군을 보유한 인민해방군(PLA)은 중앙군사위원회(CMC)가 지휘하는 세계 최대 규모의 상비군이다.[287]중국은 북한 다음으로 군사 예비군 규모가 큰 나라다.[citation needed]PLAG는 지상군(PLAGF), 해군(Plan), 공군(PLAAF), 로켓군(PLAF), 전략지원군(PLAASF)으로 구성되어 있다.중국 정부에 따르면 2017년 군사비는 총 1515억달러로 국내총생산(GDP) 대비 1.3%의 군사비율이 세계 평균을 밑돌고 있지만 세계 2위의 군사예산을 구성했다.[288]그러나 SIPRI와 미 국방부 장관실 등 많은 당국자들은 중국이 공식 예산보다 훨씬 높은 실제 수준의 군사비를 숨기고 있다고 주장한다.[288][289]

중국은 세계 3위의 핵무기 비축량을 자랑하는 [290]등 세계 3위의 강력한 군사력을 자랑한다.[291]

이코노미

중국과 기타 주요 개발 도상국들은 1990–2013 구매력 평가에서 1인당 GDP를 기준으로 한다.중국(파란색)의 급속한 경제성장은 쉽게 알 수 있다.[292]
중국수출비례대표, 2019

중국은 2010년 이후 명목 GDP 기준으로 세계 2위의 경제대국으로 2020년 기준 약 15조6600억 달러(101조6,000억 위안)에 이른다.[293][294][295]세계은행에 따르면 구매력평가(PPP) 기준 중국 경제는 2014년 이후 세계 최대 규모다.[296]중국은 또한 세계에서 가장 빠르게 성장하고 있는 주요 경제국이다.[297]세계은행에 따르면 중국의 국내총생산(GDP)은 1978년 1500억 달러에서 2019년까지 14조2800억 달러로 성장했다.[298]중국의 경제성장률은 1978년 경제개혁 도입 이후 꾸준히 6%를 웃돌고 있다.[299]중국은 또한 세계 최대 수출국이자 2위의 상품 수입국이다.[300]2010~2019년 중국의 세계 GDP 성장 기여도는 25%~39%[301][302]에 이른다.

중국은 지난 2천년 동안 세계에서 가장경제대국 중 하나를 가지고 있었는데,[303] 그 기간 동안 번영과 쇠퇴의 순환을 보아왔다.[304][305]1978년 경제개혁이 시작된 이래 중국은 고도로 다각화된 경제국가로 발전했고, 국제무역에서 가장 중요한 주체 중 하나로 성장했다.경쟁력의 주요 부문으로는 제조업, 소매업, 광업, 철강, 섬유, 자동차, 에너지 발전, 그린 에너지, 은행, 전자, 통신, 부동산, 전자상거래, 관광 등이 있다.중국은[306] 2020년 10월 현재 세계 10대 증권거래소 중 상하이, 홍콩, 선전 등 3개 거래소가 시가총액 15조9000억 달러를 넘고 있다.[307]중국은 세계 10대 경쟁력 금융중심지 중 4곳(상하이, 홍콩, 베이징, 선전)을 보유하고 있어 2020년 글로벌 파이낸셜센터지수에서 어느 나라보다 높은 수준이다.[308]옥스퍼드 이코노믹스의 보고서에 따르면 2035년까지 중국의 4개 도시(상하이, 베이징, 광저우, 선전)가 명목 GDP 기준으로 세계 10대 도시 안에 들 것으로 전망됐다.[309]

중국은 지난 100년간 1위였던 미국을 제치고 2010년부터 세계 1위 제조국이다.[310][311]미국 국립과학재단에 따르면 중국도 2012년부터 첨단 제조업 2위를 지키고 있다.[312]중국은 미국에 이어 세계에서 두 번째로 큰 소매시장이다.[313]중국은 2016년[314] 전 세계 시장 점유율 40%를 차지했고 2019년에는 전 세계 시장 점유율 50% 이상을 차지할 정도로 전자상거래 분야에서 세계를 선도하고 있다.[315]중국은 2018년 전 세계 플러그인 전기차(BEV·PHEV)의 절반을 제조·구매하는 등 전기차 분야에서 세계 선두주자다.[316]중국은 또한 전기 자동차용 배터리뿐만 아니라 배터리용 주요 원료를 생산하는 선두주자다.[317]중국은 2018년 말까지 설치된 태양광 용량은 174GW로 전 세계 태양광 용량의 40%가 넘는다.[318][319]

외국과 일부 중국 소식통들은 중국 정부의 공식 통계가 중국의 경제 성장을 과대평가하고 있다고 주장했다.[320][321][322][323]그러나 몇몇 서양의 학자들과 기관들은 중국의 경제 성장이 공식 통계에 의해 지시된 것보다 더 높다고 말했다.[324][325][326][327][328][329]

중국은 경제 개방의 결과로 생겨난 비공식 경제 규모가 크다.비공식 경제는 노동자의 고용과 소득의 원천이지만 인식되지 않고 낮은 생산성으로 인해 어려움을 겪고 있다.[330]

의 부(富)

2020년 기준으로 중국은 총 억만장자 수, 총 백만장자 에서 미국에 이어 세계 2위로 중국 억만장자가 698명, 억만장자가 440만명에 이른다.[331][332]크레디트 스위스의 세계 재산 보고서에 따르면, 2019년에 중국은 최소 11만 달러의 순 개인 재산을 가진 가장 많은 사람들의 고향으로 미국을 추월했다.[333][334]후룬 글로벌 리치리스트 2020에 따르면 중국은 세계 10대 도시 중 5곳(베이징 상하이 홍콩 선전 광저우 1·4·5·10위)이 어느 나라보다 많은 억만장자가 가장 많은 곳이다.[335]중국은 2021년 1월 현재 전 세계 여성 억만장자의 3분의 2인 85명을 보유하고 있으며, 2020년에는 24명의 여성 억만장자를 새로 채굴했다.[336]

그러나 1인당 경제 생산량에서 60여 개국(180여 개국)에 뒤져 있어 중상위 소득국이다.[337]게다가, 그것의 발전은 매우 고르지 않다.주요 도시와 해안 지역은 농촌과 내륙 지역에 비해 훨씬 더 번창하고 있다.[338]중국은 역사상[339] 그 어느 나라보다도 더 많은 사람들을 극빈에서 구해냈다. 1978년과 2018년 사이에 중국은 극빈을 8억이나 줄였다.중국은 국제 기준으로는 하루 1.90달러 미만의 수입을 1981년 88%에서 2013년까지 1.85%로 줄였다.[340]세계은행에 따르면 1990~2013년 극빈층 중국인은 7억5600만 명에서 2500만 명으로 줄었다.[341]국제 빈곤선인 하루 1.90달러(2011년 PPP) 이하로 사는 중국 인구의 비중은 1990년 66.3%에서 2018년 0.3%로 떨어졌다.하루 3.20달러의 중저소득 빈곤선을 활용하면 1990년 90.0%에서 2018년 2.9%로 비중이 떨어졌다.하루 5.50달러의 중상위 소득 빈곤선을 활용하면 1990년 98.3%에서 17.0%로 비중이 떨어졌다.[342]

경제 성장

China's nominal GDP trend from 1952 to 2015

From its founding in 1949 until late 1978, the People's Republic of China was a Soviet-style centrally planned economy. Following Mao's death in 1976 and the consequent end of the Cultural Revolution, Deng Xiaoping and the new Chinese leadership began to reform the economy and move towards a more market-oriented mixed economy under one-party rule. Agricultural collectivization was dismantled and farmlands privatized, while foreign trade became a major new focus, leading to the creation of Special Economic Zones (SEZs). Inefficient state-owned enterprises (SOEs) were restructured and unprofitable ones were closed outright, resulting in massive job losses.[citation needed] Modern-day China is mainly characterized as having a market economy based on private property ownership,[343] and is one of the leading examples of state capitalism.[344][345] The state still dominates in strategic "pillar" sectors such as energy production and heavy industries, but private enterprise has expanded enormously, with around 30 million private businesses recorded in 2008.[346][347][better source needed][348][349] In 2018, private enterprises in China accounted for 60% of GDP, 80% of urban employment and 90% of new jobs.[350]

In the early 2010s, China's economic growth rate began to slow amid domestic credit troubles, weakening international demand for Chinese exports and fragility in the global economy.[351][352][353] China's GDP was slightly larger than Germany's in 2007; however, by 2017, China's $12.2 trillion-economy became larger than those of Germany, UK, France and Italy combined.[354] In 2018, the IMF reiterated its forecast that China will overtake the US in terms of nominal GDP by the year 2030.[355] Economists also expect China's middle class to expand to 600 million people by 2025.[356]

In 2020, China was the only major economy in the world to grow, recording a 2.3% growth due to its success in taming the coronavirus within its borders.[357]

China in the global economy

Share of world GDP (PPP)[358]
Year Share
1980 2.32%
1990 4.11%
2000 7.40%
2010 13.89%
2018 18.72%

China is a member of the WTO and is the world's largest trading power, with a total international trade value of US$4.62 trillion in 2018.[359] Its foreign exchange reserves reached US$3.1 trillion as of 2019,[360] making its reserves by far the world's largest.[361][362] In 2012, China was the world's largest recipient of inward foreign direct investment (FDI), attracting $253 billion.[363] In 2014, China's foreign exchange remittances were $US64 billion making it the second largest recipient of remittances in the world.[364] China also invests abroad, with a total outward FDI of $62.4 billion in 2012,[363] and a number of major takeovers of foreign firms by Chinese companies.[365] China is a major owner of US public debt, holding trillions of dollars worth of U.S. Treasury bonds.[366][367] China's undervalued exchange rate has caused friction with other major economies,[239] and it has also been widely criticized for manufacturing large quantities of counterfeit goods.[368][369]

Largest economies by nominal GDP in 2018[370]

Following the 2007–08 financial crisis, Chinese authorities sought to actively wean off of its dependence on the U.S. dollar as a result of perceived weaknesses of the international monetary system.[371] To achieve those ends, China took a series of actions to further the internationalization of the Renminbi. In 2008, China established dim sum bond market and expanded the Cross-Border Trade RMB Settlement Pilot Project, which helps establish pools of offshore RMB liquidity.[372][373] This was followed with bilateral agreements to settle trades directly in renminbi with Russia,[374] Japan,[375] Australia,[376] Singapore,[377] the United Kingdom,[378] and Canada.[379] As a result of the rapid internationalization of the renminbi, it became the eighth-most-traded currency in the world, an emerging international reserve currency,[380] and a component of the IMF's special drawing rights; however, partly due to capital controls that make the renminbi fall short of being a fully convertible currency, it remains far behind the Euro, Dollar and Japanese Yen in international trade volumes.[381]

Class and income inequality

China has had the world's largest middle class population since 2015,[382] and the middle class grew to a size of 400 million by 2018.[383] In 2020, a study by the Brookings Institution forecast that China's middle-class will reach 1.2 billion by 2027 (almost 4 times the entire U.S. population today), making up one fourth of the world total.[384] Wages in China have grown a lot in the last 40 years—real (inflation-adjusted) wages grew seven-fold from 1978 to 2007.[385] By 2018, median wages in Chinese cities such as Shanghai were about the same as or higher than the wages in Eastern European countries.[386] China has the world's highest number of billionaires, with nearly 878 as of October 2020, increasing at the rate of roughly five per week.[387][388][389] China has a high level of economic inequality,[390] which has increased in the past few decades.[391] In 2018 China's Gini coefficient was 0.467, according to the World Bank.[12]

Science and technology

Historical

Earliest known written formula for gunpowder, from the Wujing Zongyao of 1044 CE

China was a world leader in science and technology until the Ming dynasty.[392] Ancient Chinese discoveries and inventions, such as papermaking, printing, the compass, and gunpowder (the Four Great Inventions), became widespread across East Asia, the Middle East and later Europe. Chinese mathematicians were the first to use negative numbers.[393][394] By the 17th century, the Western hemisphere surpassed China in scientific and technological advancement.[395] The causes of this early modern Great Divergence continue to be debated by scholars.[396]

After repeated military defeats by the European colonial powers and Japan in the 19th century, Chinese reformers began promoting modern science and technology as part of the Self-Strengthening Movement. After the Communists came to power in 1949, efforts were made to organize science and technology based on the model of the Soviet Union, in which scientific research was part of central planning.[397] After Mao's death in 1976, science and technology was promoted as one of the Four Modernizations,[398] and the Soviet-inspired academic system was gradually reformed.[399]

Modern era

Huawei headquarters in Shenzhen. Huawei is the world's largest telecoms-equipment-maker and the second-largest manufacturer of smartphones in the world.[400]

Since the end of the Cultural Revolution, China has made significant investments in scientific research[401] and is quickly catching up with the US in R&D spending.[402][403] In 2017, China spent $279 billion on scientific research and development.[404] According to the OECD, China spent 2.11% of its GDP on research and development (R&D) in 2016.[405] Science and technology are seen as vital for achieving China's economic and political goals, and are held as a source of national pride to a degree sometimes described as "techno-nationalism".[406] According to the World Intellectual Property Indicators, China received 1.54 million patent applications in 2018, representing nearly half of patent applications worldwide, more than double the US.[407] In 2019, China was No. 1 in international patents application.[408] China was ranked 12th, 3rd in Asia & Oceania region and 2nd for countries with a population of over 100 million in the Global Innovation Index in 2021, it has increased its ranking considerably since 2013, where it was ranked 35th.[409][410][411][412] China ranks first globally in the important indicators, including patents, utility models, trademarks, industrial designs, and creative goods exports and it also has 2 (Shenzhen-Hong Kong-Guangzhou and Beijing in the 2nd and 3rd spots respectively) of the global top 5 science and technology clusters, which is more than any other country.[409] Chinese tech companies Huawei and ZTE were the top 2 filers of international patents in 2017.[413][414] Chinese-born academicians have won the Nobel Prize in Physics four times, the Nobel Prize in Chemistry, Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine and Fields Medal once respectively, though most of them conducted their prize-winning research in western nations.[t][improper synthesis?]

Jiuquan Satellite Launch Center, one of the first Chinese spaceports

China is developing its education system with an emphasis on science, technology, engineering and mathematics (STEM); in 2009, China graduated over 10,000 PhD engineers, and as many as 500,000 BSc graduates, more than any other country.[421] China also became the world's largest publisher of scientific papers in 2016.[422] Chinese technology companies such as Huawei and Lenovo have become world leaders in telecommunications and personal computing,[423][424][425] and Chinese supercomputers are consistently ranked among the world's most powerful.[426][427] China has been the world's largest market for industrial robots since 2013 and will account for 45% of newly installed robots from 2019 to 2021.[428]

The Chinese space program is one of the world's most active. In 1970, China launched its first satellite, Dong Fang Hong I, becoming the fifth country to do so independently.[429] In 2003, China became the third country to independently send humans into space, with Yang Liwei's spaceflight aboard Shenzhou 5; as of 2021, thirteen Chinese nationals have journeyed into space, including two women. In 2011, China's first space station module, Tiangong-1, was launched, marking the first step in a project to assemble a large crewed station by the early 2020s.[430] In 2013, China successfully landed the Chang'e 3 lander and Yutu rover onto the lunar surface.[431] In 2016, the first quantum science satellite was launched in partnership with Austria dedicated to testing the fundamentals of quantum communication in space.[432][433] In 2019, China became the first country to land a probe—Chang'e 4—on the far side of the moon.[434] In 2020, the first experimental 6G test satellite was launched[435][436] and Chang'e 5 successfully returned moon samples to the Earth, making China the third country to do so independently after the United States and the Soviet Union.[437] In 2021, China became the second nation in history to independently land a rover (Zhurong) on Mars, joining the United States.[438]

Infrastructure

After a decades-long infrastructural boom,[439] China has produced numerous world-leading infrastructural projects: China has the world's largest bullet train network,[440] the most supertall skyscrapers in the world,[441] the world's largest power plant (the Three Gorges Dam),[442] the largest energy generation capacity in the world,[443] a global satellite navigation system with the largest number of satellites in the world,[444] and has initiated the Belt and Road Initiative, a large global infrastructure building initiative with funding on the order of $50–100 billion per year.[445] The Belt and Road Initiative could be one of the largest development plans in modern history.[446]

Telecommunications

Internet penetration rates in China in the context of East Asia and Southeast Asia, 1995–2012

China is the largest telecom market in the world and currently has the largest number of active cellphones of any country in the world, with over 1.5 billion subscribers, as of 2018.[447] It also has the world's largest number of internet and broadband users, with over 800 million Internet users as of 2018—equivalent to around 60% of its population—and almost all of them being mobile as well.[448] By 2018, China had more than 1 billion 4G users, accounting for 40% of world's total.[449] China is making rapid advances in 5G—by late 2018, China had started large-scale and commercial 5G trials.[450]

China Mobile, China Unicom and China Telecom, are the three large providers of mobile and internet in China. China Telecom alone served more than 145 million broadband subscribers and 300 million mobile users; China Unicom had about 300 million subscribers; and China Mobile, the biggest of them all, had 925 million users, as of 2018.[451][452][453] Combined, the three operators had over 3.4 million 4G base-stations in China.[454] Several Chinese telecommunications companies, most notably Huawei and ZTE, have been accused of spying for the Chinese military.[455]

China has developed its own satellite navigation system, dubbed Beidou, which began offering commercial navigation services across Asia in 2012[456] as well as global services by the end of 2018.[457][458] Upon the completion of the 35th Beidou satellite, which was launched into orbit on 23 June 2020, Beidou followed GPS and GLONASS as the third completed global navigation satellite in the world.[459]

Transport

Since the late 1990s, China's national road network has been significantly expanded through the creation of a network of national highways and expressways. In 2018, China's highways had reached a total length of 142,500 km (88,500 mi), making it the longest highway system in the world.[460] China has the world's largest market for automobiles, having surpassed the United States in both auto sales and production. A side-effect of the rapid growth of China's road network has been a significant rise in traffic accidents,[461] though the number of fatalities in traffic accidents fell by 20% from 2007 to 2017.[462] In urban areas, bicycles remain a common mode of transport, despite the increasing prevalence of automobiles – as of 2012, there are approximately 470 million bicycles in China.[463]

The Beijing Daxing International Airport features the world's largest single-building airport terminal.

China's railways, which are state-owned, are among the busiest in the world, handling a quarter of the world's rail traffic volume on only 6 percent of the world's tracks in 2006.[464][better source needed] As of 2017, the country had 127,000 km (78,914 mi) of railways, the second longest network in the world.[465] The railways strain to meet enormous demand particularly during the Chinese New Year holiday, when the world's largest annual human migration takes place.[466]

China's high-speed rail (HSR) system started construction in the early 2000s. By the end of 2020, high speed rail in China had reached 37,900 kilometers (23,550 miles) of dedicated lines alone, making it the longest HSR network in the world.[467][468] Services on the Beijing–Shanghai, Beijing–Tianjin, and Chengdu–Chongqing Lines reach up to 350 km/h (217 mph), making them the fastest conventional high speed railway services in the world. With an annual ridership of over 2.29 billion passengers in 2019 it is the world's busiest.[469][better source needed] The network includes the Beijing–Guangzhou–Shenzhen High-Speed Railway, the single longest HSR line in the world, and the Beijing–Shanghai High-Speed Railway, which has three of longest railroad bridges in the world.[470] The Shanghai Maglev Train, which reaches 431 km/h (268 mph), is the fastest commercial train service in the world.[471]

The Port of Shanghai's deep water harbor on Yangshan Island in the Hangzhou Bay is the world's busiest container port since 2010.

Since 2000, the growth of rapid transit systems in Chinese cities has accelerated.[472] As of January 2021, 44 Chinese cities have urban mass transit systems in operation[473] and 39 more have metro systems approved.[474] As of 2020, China boasts the five longest metro systems in the world with the networks in Shanghai, Beijing, Guangzhou, Chengdu and Shenzhen being the largest.

There were approximately 229 airports in 2017, with around 240 planned by 2020. China has over 2,000 river and seaports, about 130 of which are open to foreign shipping.[citation needed] In 2017, the Ports of Shanghai, Hong Kong, Shenzhen, Ningbo-Zhoushan, Guangzhou, Qingdao and Tianjin ranked in the Top 10 in the world in container traffic and cargo tonnage.[475]

Water supply and sanitation

Water supply and sanitation infrastructure in China is facing challenges such as rapid urbanization, as well as water scarcity, contamination, and pollution.[476] According to data presented by the Joint Monitoring Program for Water Supply and Sanitation of WHO and UNICEF in 2015, about 36% of the rural population in China still did not have access to improved sanitation.[477] The ongoing South–North Water Transfer Project intends to abate water shortage in the north.[478]

Demographics

A 2009 population density map of the People's Republic of China and Taiwan. The eastern coastal provinces are much more densely populated than the western interior.

The national census of 2010 recorded the population of the People's Republic of China as approximately 1,370,536,875. About 16.60% of the population were 14 years old or younger, 70.14% were between 15 and 59 years old, and 13.26% were over 60 years old.[479] The population growth rate for 2013 is estimated to be 0.46%.[480] China used to make up much of the world's poor; now it makes up much of the world's middle class.[481] Although a middle-income country by Western standards, China's rapid growth has pulled hundreds of millions—800 million, to be more precise[482]—of its people out of poverty since 1978. By 2013, less than 2% of the Chinese population lived below the international poverty line of US$1.9 per day, down from 88% in 1981.[340] From 2009 to 2018, the unemployment rate in China has averaged about 4%.[483]

Given concerns about population growth, China implemented a two-child limit during the 1970s, and, in 1979, began to advocate for an even stricter limit of one child per family. Beginning in the mid-1980s, however, given the unpopularity of the strict limits, China began to allow some major exemptions, particularly in rural areas, resulting in what was actually a "1.5"-child policy from the mid-1980s to 2015 (ethnic minorities were also exempt from one child limits). The next major loosening of the policy was enacted in December 2013, allowing families to have two children if one parent is an only child.[484] In 2016, the one-child policy was replaced in favor of a two-child policy.[485] Data from the 2010 census implies that the total fertility rate may be around 1.4, although due to under-reporting of births it may be closer to 1.5–1.6.[486]

According to one group of scholars, one-child limits had little effect on population growth[487] or the size of the total population.[488] However, these scholars have been challenged. Their own counterfactual model of fertility decline without such restrictions implies that China averted more than 500 million births between 1970 and 2015, a number which may reach one billion by 2060 given all the lost descendants of births averted during the era of fertility restrictions, with one-child restrictions accounting for the great bulk of that reduction.[489]

The policy, along with traditional preference for boys, may have contributed to an imbalance in the sex ratio at birth.[490][491] According to the 2010 census, the sex ratio at birth was 118.06 boys for every 100 girls,[492] which is beyond the normal range of around 105 boys for every 100 girls.[493] The 2010 census found that males accounted for 51.27 percent of the total population.[492] However, China's sex ratio is more balanced than it was in 1953, when males accounted for 51.82 percent of the total population.[492]

Ethnic groups

Ethnolinguistic map of China

China legally recognizes 56 distinct ethnic groups, who altogether comprise the Zhonghua Minzu. The largest of these nationalities are the ethnic Chinese or "Han", who constitute more than 90% of the total population.[494] The Han Chinese – the world's largest single ethnic group[495] – outnumber other ethnic groups in every provincial-level division except Tibet and Xinjiang.[496] Ethnic minorities account for less than 10% of the population of China, according to the 2010 census.[494] Compared with the 2000 population census, the Han population increased by 66,537,177 persons, or 5.74%, while the population of the 55 national minorities combined increased by 7,362,627 persons, or 6.92%.[494] The 2010 census recorded a total of 593,832 foreign nationals living in China. The largest such groups were from South Korea (120,750), the United States (71,493) and Japan (66,159).[497]

Languages

A trilingual sign in Sibsongbanna, with Tai Lü language on the top

There are as many as 292 living languages in China.[498] The languages most commonly spoken belong to the Sinitic branch of the Sino-Tibetan language family, which contains Mandarin (spoken by 70% of the population),[499] and other varieties of Chinese language: Yue (including Cantonese and Taishanese), Wu (including Shanghainese and Suzhounese), Min (including Fuzhounese, Hokkien and Teochew), Xiang, Gan and Hakka. Languages of the Tibeto-Burman branch, including Tibetan, Qiang, Naxi and Yi, are spoken across the Tibetan and Yunnan–Guizhou Plateau. Other ethnic minority languages in southwest China include Zhuang, Thai, Dong and Sui of the Tai-Kadai family, Miao and Yao of the Hmong–Mien family, and Wa of the Austroasiatic family. Across northeastern and northwestern China, local ethnic groups speak Altaic languages including Manchu, Mongolian and several Turkic languages: Uyghur, Kazakh, Kyrgyz, Salar and Western Yugur. Korean is spoken natively along the border with North Korea. Sarikoli, the language of Tajiks in western Xinjiang, is an Indo-European language. Taiwanese aborigines, including a small population on the mainland, speak Austronesian languages.[500]

Standard Mandarin, a variety of Mandarin based on the Beijing dialect, is the official national language of China and is used as a lingua franca in the country between people of different linguistic backgrounds.[501][502] Mongolian, Uyghur, Tibetan, Zhuang and various other languages are also regionally recognized throughout the country.[503]

Chinese characters have been used as the written script for the Sinitic languages for thousands of years. They allow speakers of mutually unintelligible Chinese varieties to communicate with each other through writing. In 1956, the government introduced simplified characters, which have supplanted the older traditional characters in mainland China. Chinese characters are romanized using the Pinyin system. Tibetan uses an alphabet based on an Indic script. Uyghur is most commonly written in Persian alphabet-based Uyghur Arabic alphabet. The Mongolian script used in China and the Manchu script are both derived from the Old Uyghur alphabet. Zhuang uses both an official Latin alphabet script and a traditional Chinese character script.[citation needed]

Urbanization

Map of the ten largest cities in China (2010)

China has urbanized significantly in recent decades. The percent of the country's population living in urban areas increased from 20% in 1980 to over 60% in 2019.[504][505][506] It is estimated that China's urban population will reach one billion by 2030, potentially equivalent to one-eighth of the world population.[505][506]

China has over 160 cities with a population of over one million,[507] including the 19 megacities[508][509] (cities with a population of over 10 million) of Chongqing, Shanghai, Beijing, Chengdu, Guangzhou, Tianjin, Shenzhen, Wuhan, Harbin, Shijiazhuang, Suzhou, Hangzhou, Xi'an, Zhengzhou, Baoding, Linyi, Changsha, Dongguan and Qingdao.[510] Shanghai is China's most populous urban area[511][512] while Chongqing is its largest city proper.[513] By 2025, it is estimated that the country will be home to 221 cities with over a million inhabitants.[505] The figures in the table below are from the 2017 census,[514] and are only estimates of the urban populations within administrative city limits; a different ranking exists when considering the total municipal populations (which includes suburban and rural populations). The large "floating populations" of migrant workers make conducting censuses in urban areas difficult;[515] the figures below include only long-term residents.[citation needed]

Largest cities or municipalities in the People's Republic of China
China Urban Construction Statistical Yearbook 2020 Urban Population and Urban Temporary Population [516][note 1][note 2]
Rank Name Province Pop. Rank Name Province Pop.
Shanghai
Shanghai
Beijing
Beijing
1 Shanghai SH 24,281,400 11 Hong Kong HK 7,448,900 Guangzhou
Guangzhou
Shenzhen
Shenzhen
2 Beijing BJ 19,164,000 12 Zhengzhou HA 7,179,400
3 Guangzhou GD 13,858,700 13 Nanjing JS 6,823,500
4 Shenzhen GD 13,438,800 14 Xi'an SN 6,642,100
5 Tianjin TJ 11,744,400 15 Jinan SD 6,409,600
6 Chongqing CQ 11,488,000 16 Shenyang LN 5,900,000
7 Dongguan GD 9,752,500 17 Qingdao SD 5,501,400
8 Chengdu SC 8,875,600 18 Harbin HL 5,054,500
9 Wuhan HB 8,652,900 19 Hefei AH 4,750,100
10 Hangzhou ZJ 8,109,000 20 Changchun JL 4,730,900
  1. ^ Population of Hong Kong as of 2018 estimate.[517]
  2. ^ The data of Chongqing in the list is the data of "Metropolitan Developed Economic Area", which contains two parts: "City Proper" and "Metropolitan Area". The "City proper" are consist of 9 districts: Yuzhong, Dadukou, Jiangbei, Shapingba, Jiulongpo, Nan'an, Beibei, Yubei, & Banan, has the urban population of 5,646,300 as of 2018. And the "Metropolitan Area" are consist of 12 districts: Fuling, Changshou, Jiangjin, Hechuan, Yongchuan, Nanchuan, Qijiang, Dazu, Bishan, Tongliang, Tongnan, & Rongchang, has the urban population of 5,841,700.[518] Total urban population of all 26 districts of Chongqing are up to 15,076,600.

Education

Since 1986, compulsory education in China comprises primary and junior secondary school, which together last for nine years.[521] In 2019, about 89.5 percent of students continued their education at a three-year senior secondary school.[522] The Gaokao, China's national university entrance exam, is a prerequisite for entrance into most higher education institutions. In 2010, 27 percent of secondary school graduates are enrolled in higher education.[523][better source needed] This number increased significantly over the last years, reaching a tertiary school enrolment of 58.42 percent in 2020.[524] Vocational education is available to students at the secondary and tertiary level.[525] More than 10 million Chinese students graduated from vocational colleges nationwide every year.[526]

China has the largest education system in the world, with about 282 million students and 17.32 million full-time teachers in over 530,000 schools.[527] In February 2006, the government pledged to provide completely free nine-year education, including textbooks and fees.[528] Annual education investment went from less than US$50 billion in 2003 to more than US$817 billion in 2020.[529][530] However, there remains an inequality in education spending. In 2010, the annual education expenditure per secondary school student in Beijing totalled ¥20,023, while in Guizhou, one of the poorest provinces in China, only totalled ¥3,204.[531] Free compulsory education in China consists of primary school and junior secondary school between the ages of 6 and 15. In 2020, the graduation enrollment ratio at compulsory education level reached 95.2 percent, exceeding average levels recorded in high-income countries,[527] and around 91.2% of Chinese have received secondary education.[525]

China's literacy rate has grown dramatically, from only 20% in 1949 and 65.5% in 1979.[532] to 96% of the population over age 15 in 2018.[533] In the same year, China (Beijing, Shanghai, Jiangsu, and Zhejiang) was ranked the highest in the world in the Programme for International Student Assessment ranking for all three categories of Mathematics, Science and Reading.[534] China ranks first in the all-time medal count at the International Mathematical Olympiad with 168 goal medals since its first participation in 1985.[535] China also ranks first in the all-time medal count at the International Physics Olympiad, the International Chemistry Olympiad, and the International Olympiad in Informatics.[536][537][538]

China had over 3,000 universities, with over 40 million students enrolled in mainland China.[539][540] As of 2020, China had the world's second-highest number of top universities.[541][542][543] Currently, China trails only the United States in terms of representation on lists of top 200 universities according to the Academic Ranking of World Universities (ARWU).[544] China is home to the two best universities (Tsinghua University and Peking University) in the whole Asia-Oceania region and emerging countries according to the Times Higher Education World University Rankings.[545][546][547] Both are members of the C9 League, an alliance of elite Chinese universities offering comprehensive and leading education.[548]

Health

Chart showing the rise of China's Human Development Index from 1970 to 2010

The National Health and Family Planning Commission, together with its counterparts in the local commissions, oversees the health needs of the Chinese population.[549] An emphasis on public health and preventive medicine has characterized Chinese health policy since the early 1950s. At that time, the Communist Party started the Patriotic Health Campaign, which was aimed at improving sanitation and hygiene, as well as treating and preventing several diseases. Diseases such as cholera, typhoid and scarlet fever, which were previously rife in China, were nearly eradicated by the campaign.[citation needed]

After Deng Xiaoping began instituting economic reforms in 1978, the health of the Chinese public improved rapidly because of better nutrition, although many of the free public health services provided in the countryside disappeared along with the People's Communes. Healthcare in China became mostly privatized, and experienced a significant rise in quality. In 2009, the government began a 3-year large-scale healthcare provision initiative worth US$124 billion.[550] By 2011, the campaign resulted in 95% of China's population having basic health insurance coverage.[551] In 2011, China was estimated to be the world's third-largest supplier of pharmaceuticals, but its population has suffered from the development and distribution of counterfeit medications.[552]

As of 2017, the average life expectancy at birth in China is 76 years,[553] and the infant mortality rate is 7 per thousand.[554] Both have improved significantly since the 1950s.[u] Rates of stunting, a condition caused by malnutrition, have declined from 33.1% in 1990 to 9.9% in 2010.[557] Despite significant improvements in health and the construction of advanced medical facilities, China has several emerging public health problems, such as respiratory illnesses caused by widespread air pollution,[558] hundreds of millions of cigarette smokers,[559] and an increase in obesity among urban youths.[560][561] China's large population and densely populated cities have led to serious disease outbreaks in recent years, such as the 2003 outbreak of SARS, although this has since been largely contained.[562] In 2010, air pollution caused 1.2 million premature deaths in China.[563]

The COVID-19 pandemic was first identified in Wuhan in December 2019.[564][565] Further studies are being carried out around the world on a possible origin for the virus.[566][567] The Chinese government has been criticized for its handling of the epidemic and accused of concealing the extent of the outbreak before it became an international pandemic.[568]

Religion

Geographic distribution of religions in China.[569][570][571][572]
Chinese folk religion (including Confucianism, Taoism, and groups of Chinese Buddhism)
Buddhism tout court
Islam
Ethnic minorities' indigenous religions
Mongolian folk religion
Northeast China folk religion influenced by Tungus and Manchu shamanism; widespread Shanrendao

The government of the People's Republic of China officially espouses state atheism,[573] and has conducted antireligious campaigns to this end.[574] Religious affairs and issues in the country are overseen by the State Administration for Religious Affairs.[575] Freedom of religion is guaranteed by China's constitution, although religious organizations that lack official approval can be subject to state persecution.[266][576]

Over the millennia, Chinese civilization has been influenced by various religious movements. The "three teachings", including Confucianism, Taoism, and Buddhism (Chinese Buddhism), historically have a significant role in shaping Chinese culture,[577][578] enriching a theological and spiritual framework which harks back to the early Shang and Zhou dynasty. Chinese popular or folk religion, which is framed by the three teachings and other traditions,[579] consists in allegiance to the shen (), a character that signifies the "energies of generation", who can be deities of the environment or ancestral principles of human groups, concepts of civility, culture heroes, many of whom feature in Chinese mythology and history.[580] Among the most popular cults are those of Mazu (goddess of the seas),[581] Huangdi (one of the two divine patriarchs of the Chinese race),[581][582] Guandi (god of war and business), Caishen (god of prosperity and richness), Pangu and many others. China is home to many of the world's tallest religious statues, including the tallest of all, the Spring Temple Buddha in Henan.[citation needed]

Clear data on religious affiliation in China is difficult to gather due to varying definitions of "religion" and the unorganized, diffusive nature of Chinese religious traditions. Scholars note that in China there is no clear boundary between three teachings religions and local folk religious practice.[577] A 2015 poll conducted by Gallup International found that 61% of Chinese people self-identified as "convinced atheist",[583] though it is worthwhile to note that Chinese religions or some of their strands are definable as non-theistic and humanistic religions, since they do not believe that divine creativity is completely transcendent, but it is inherent in the world and in particular in the human being.[584] According to a 2014 study, approximately 74% are either non-religious or practice Chinese folk belief, 16% are Buddhists, 2% are Christians, 1% are Muslims, and 8% adhere to other religions including Taoists and folk salvationism.[585][586] In addition to Han people's local religious practices, there are also various ethnic minority groups in China who maintain their traditional autochthone religions. The various folk religions today comprise 2–3% of the population, while Confucianism as a religious self-identification is common within the intellectual class. Significant faiths specifically connected to certain ethnic groups include Tibetan Buddhism and the Islamic religion of the Hui, Uyghur, Kazakh, Kyrgyz and other peoples in Northwest China.[citation needed] The 2010 population census reported the total number of Muslims in the country as 23.14 million.[587]

A 2021 poll from Ipsos and the Policy Institute at King's College London found that 35% of Chinese people said there was tension between different religious groups, which was the second lowest percentage of the 28 countries surveyed.[588][589]

Culture

The Temple of Heaven, a center of heaven worship and an UNESCO World Heritage site, symbolizes the Interactions Between Heaven and Mankind.[590]
Fenghuang County, an ancient town that harbors many architectural remains of Ming and Qing styles.

Since ancient times, Chinese culture has been heavily influenced by Confucianism. For much of the country's dynastic era, opportunities for social advancement could be provided by high performance in the prestigious imperial examinations, which have their origins in the Han dynasty.[591] The literary emphasis of the exams affected the general perception of cultural refinement in China, such as the belief that calligraphy, poetry and painting were higher forms of art than dancing or drama. Chinese culture has long emphasized a sense of deep history and a largely inward-looking national perspective.[592] Examinations and a culture of merit remain greatly valued in China today.[593]

A Moon gate in a Chinese garden.

The first leaders of the People's Republic of China were born into the traditional imperial order but were influenced by the May Fourth Movement and reformist ideals. They sought to change some traditional aspects of Chinese culture, such as rural land tenure, sexism, and the Confucian system of education, while preserving others, such as the family structure and culture of obedience to the state. Some observers see the period following the establishment of the PRC in 1949 as a continuation of traditional Chinese dynastic history, while others claim that the Communist Party's rule has damaged the foundations of Chinese culture, especially through political movements such as the Cultural Revolution of the 1960s, where many aspects of traditional culture were destroyed, having been denounced as "regressive and harmful" or "vestiges of feudalism". Many important aspects of traditional Chinese morals and culture, such as Confucianism, art, literature, and performing arts like Peking opera,[594] were altered to conform to government policies and propaganda at the time. Access to foreign media remains heavily restricted.[595]

Today, the Chinese government has accepted numerous elements of traditional Chinese culture as being integral to Chinese society. With the rise of Chinese nationalism and the end of the Cultural Revolution, various forms of traditional Chinese art, literature, music, film, fashion and architecture have seen a vigorous revival,[596][597] and folk and variety art in particular have sparked interest nationally and even worldwide.[598] A poll in October 2020[599] of respondents in Spain,[600] Slovakia,[601] Latvia,[602] Serbia,[603] and Russia[604] found that majorities in those countries considered China to be "culturally attractive".

Tourism in China

China received 55.7 million inbound international visitors in 2010,[605] and in 2012 was the third-most-visited country in the world.[606] It also experiences an enormous volume of domestic tourism; an estimated 740 million Chinese holidaymakers traveled within the country in October 2012.[607] China hosts the world's second-largest number of World Heritage Sites (56) after Italy, and is one of the most popular tourist destinations in the world (first in the Asia-Pacific). It is forecast by Euromonitor International that China will become the world's most popular destination for tourists by 2030.[608]

Literature

The stories in Journey to the West are common themes in Peking opera.

Chinese literature is based on the literature of the Zhou dynasty.[609] Concepts covered within the Chinese classic texts present a wide range of thoughts and subjects including calendar, military, astrology, herbology, geography and many others.[610] Some of the most important early texts include the I Ching and the Shujing within the Four Books and Five Classics which served as the Confucian authoritative books for the state-sponsored curriculum in dynastic era.[611] Inherited from the Classic of Poetry, classical Chinese poetry developed to its floruit during the Tang dynasty. Li Bai and Du Fu opened the forking ways for the poetic circles through romanticism and realism respectively.[612] Chinese historiography began with the Shiji, the overall scope of the historiographical tradition in China is termed the Twenty-Four Histories, which set a vast stage for Chinese fictions along with Chinese mythology and folklore.[613] Pushed by a burgeoning citizen class in the Ming dynasty, Chinese classical fiction rose to a boom of the historical, town and gods and demons fictions as represented by the Four Great Classical Novels which include Water Margin, Romance of the Three Kingdoms, Journey to the West and Dream of the Red Chamber.[614] Along with the wuxia fictions of Jin Yong and Liang Yusheng,[615] it remains an enduring source of popular culture in the East Asian cultural sphere.[616]

In the wake of the New Culture Movement after the end of the Qing dynasty, Chinese literature embarked on a new era with written vernacular Chinese for ordinary citizens. Hu Shih and Lu Xun were pioneers in modern literature.[617] Various literary genres, such as misty poetry, scar literature, young adult fiction and the xungen literature, which is influenced by magic realism,[618] emerged following the Cultural Revolution. Mo Yan, a xungen literature author, was awarded the Nobel Prize in Literature in 2012.[619]

Cuisine

Map showing major regional cuisines of China

Chinese cuisine is highly diverse, drawing on several millennia of culinary history and geographical variety, in which the most influential are known as the "Eight Major Cuisines", including Sichuan, Cantonese, Jiangsu, Shandong, Fujian, Hunan, Anhui, and Zhejiang cuisines.[620] All of them are featured by the precise skills of shaping, heating, and flavoring.[621][better source needed] Chinese cuisine is also known for its width of cooking methods and ingredients,[622] as well as food therapy that is emphasized by traditional Chinese medicine.[623][better source needed] Generally, China's staple food is rice in the south, wheat-based breads and noodles in the north. The diet of the common people in pre-modern times was largely grain and simple vegetables, with meat reserved for special occasions. The bean products, such as tofu and soy milk, remain as a popular source of protein.[624] Pork is now the most popular meat in China, accounting for about three-fourths of the country's total meat consumption.[625] While pork dominates the meat market, there is also the vegetarian Buddhist cuisine and the pork-free Chinese Islamic cuisine. Southern cuisine, due to the area's proximity to the ocean and milder climate, has a wide variety of seafood and vegetables; it differs in many respects from the wheat-based diets across dry northern China. Numerous offshoots of Chinese food, such as Hong Kong cuisine and American Chinese food, have emerged in the nations that play host to the Chinese diaspora.[citation needed]

Music

Chinese music covers a highly diverse range of music from traditional music to modern music. Chinese music dates back before the pre-imperial times. Traditional Chinese musical instruments were traditionally grouped into eight categories known as bayin (八音). Traditional Chinese opera is a form of musical theatre in China originating thousands of years and has regional style forms such as Beijing opera and Cantonese opera.[626] Chinese pop (C-Pop) includes mandopop and cantopop. Chinese rap, Chinese hip hop and Hong Kong hip hop have become popular in contemporary times.[627]

Cinema

Cinema was first introduced to China in 1896 and the first Chinese film, Dingjun Mountain, was released in 1905.[628] China has the largest number of movie screens in the world since 2016,[629] China became the largest cinema market in the world in 2020.[630][631] The top 3 highest-grossing films in China currently are Wolf Warrior 2 (2017), Ne Zha (2019), and The Wandering Earth (2019).[632]

Fashion

Hanfu is the historical clothing of the Han people in China. The qipao or cheongsam is a popular Chinese female dress.[633] The hanfu movement has been popular in contemporary times and seeks to revitalize Hanfu clothing.[634]

Sports

China has one of the oldest sporting cultures in the world. There is evidence that archery (shèjiàn) was practiced during the Western Zhou dynasty. Swordplay (jiànshù) and cuju, a sport loosely related to association football[635] date back to China's early dynasties as well.[636]

Go is an abstract strategy board game for two players, in which the aim is to surround more territory than the opponent and was invented in China more than 2,500 years ago.

Physical fitness is widely emphasized in Chinese culture, with morning exercises such as qigong and t'ai chi ch'uan widely practiced,[637] and commercial gyms and private fitness clubs are gaining popularity across the country.[638] Basketball is currently the most popular spectator sport in China.[639] The Chinese Basketball Association and the American National Basketball Association have a huge following among the people, with native or ethnic Chinese players such as Yao Ming and Yi Jianlian held in high esteem.[640] China's professional football league, now known as Chinese Super League, was established in 1994, it is the largest football market in Asia.[641] Other popular sports in the country include martial arts, table tennis, badminton, swimming and snooker. Board games such as go (known as wéiqí in Chinese), xiangqi, mahjong, and more recently chess, are also played at a professional level.[642] In addition, China is home to a huge number of cyclists, with an estimated 470 million bicycles as of 2012.[463] Many more traditional sports, such as dragon boat racing, Mongolian-style wrestling and horse racing are also popular.[643]

China has participated in the Olympic Games since 1932, although it has only participated as the PRC since 1952. China hosted the 2008 Summer Olympics in Beijing, where its athletes received 48 gold medals – the highest number of gold medals of any participating nation that year.[644] China also won the most medals of any nation at the 2012 Summer Paralympics, with 231 overall, including 95 gold medals.[645][646] In 2011, Shenzhen in Guangdong, China hosted the 2011 Summer Universiade. China hosted the 2013 East Asian Games in Tianjin and the 2014 Summer Youth Olympics in Nanjing; the first country to host both regular and Youth Olympics. Beijing and its nearby city Zhangjiakou of Hebei province collaboratively hosted the 2022 Olympic Winter Games, making Beijing the first dual olympic city in the world by holding both the Summer Olympics and the Winter Olympics.[647][648]

See also

Notes

  1. ^ Chinese and English are the official languages in Hong Kong SAR only. Chinese and Portuguese are the official languages in Macau SAR only.
  2. ^
  3. ^ Although PRC President is head of state, it is a largely ceremonial office with limited power under CCP General Secretary.
  4. ^ Including both state and party's central military chairs.
  5. ^ Chairman of the Chinese People's Political Consultative Conference.
  6. ^ The area given is the official United Nations figure for the mainland and excludes Hong Kong, Macau and Taiwan.[5] It also excludes the Trans-Karakoram Tract (5,180 km2 (2,000 sq mi)), Aksai Chin (38,000 km2 (15,000 sq mi)) and other territories in dispute with India. The total area of China is listed as 9,572,900 km2 (3,696,100 sq mi) by the Encyclopædia Britannica.[6] For further information, see Territorial changes of the People's Republic of China.
  7. ^ This figure was calculated using data from the CIA World Factbook.[8]
  8. ^
  9. ^ The total area ranking relative to the United States depends on the measurement of the total areas of both countries. See List of countries and dependencies by area for more information. The following two primary sources (non-mirrored) represent the range (min./max.) of estimates of China's and the United States' total areas. Both sources (1) exclude Taiwan from the area of China; (2) exclude China's coastal and territorial waters. However, the CIA World Factbook includes the United States coastal and territorial waters, while Encyclopædia Britannica excludes the United States coastal and territorial waters.
    1. The Encyclopædia Britannica lists China as world's third-largest country (after Russia and Canada) with a total area of 9,572,900 km2,[14] and the United States as fourth-largest at 9,525,067 km2.[15]
    2. The CIA World Factbook lists China as fourth-largest country (after Russia, Canada and the United States) with a total area of 9,596,960 km2,[16] and the United States as the third-largest at 9,833,517 km2.[17]

    Notably, the Encyclopædia Britannica specifies the United States' area (excluding coastal and territorial waters) as 9,525,067 km2, which is less than either source's figure given for China's area.[15] Therefore, while it can be determined that China has a larger area excluding coastal and territorial waters, it is unclear which country has a larger area including coastal and territorial waters.


    The United Nations Statistics Division's figure for the United States is 9,833,517 km2 (3,796,742 sq mi) and China is 9,596,961 km2 (3,705,407 sq mi). These closely match the CIA World Factbook figures and similarly include coastal and territorial waters for the United States, but exclude coastal and territorial waters for China.


    Further explanation of disputed ranking: The dispute about which is the world's third-largest country arose from the inclusion of coastal and territorial waters for the United States. This discrepancy was deduced from comparing the CIA World Factbook and its previous iterations[18] against the information for United States in Encyclopædia Britannica, particularly its footnote section.[15] In sum, according to older versions of the CIA World Factbook (from 1982 to 1996), the U.S. was listed as the world's fourth-largest country (after Russia, Canada, and China) with a total area of 9,372,610 km2 (3,618,780 sq mi). However, in the 1997 edition, the U.S. added coastal waters to its total area (increasing it to 9,629,091 km2 (3,717,813 sq mi)). And then again in 2007, U.S. added territorial water to its total area (increasing it to 9,833,517 km2 (3,796,742 sq mi)). During this time, China's total area remained unchanged. In other words, no coastal or territorial water area was added to China's total area figure. The United States has a coastal water area of 109,362 km2 (42,225 sq mi), and a territorial water area of 195,213 km2 (75,372 sq mi), for a total of 304,575 km2 (117,597 sq mi) of additional water space. This is larger than entire countries like Italy, New Zealand and the United Kingdom. Adding this figure to the U.S. will boost it over China in ranking since China's coastal and territorial water figures are currently unknown (no official publication) and thus cannot be added into China's total area figure.

  10. ^ The disputed 23rd province of Taiwan is claimed by the People's Republic of China but it does not administer it. See § Administrative divisions
  11. ^ The KMT solely governed the island until its transition to democracy in 1996.
  12. ^ "[...] Next vnto this, is found the great China, whose kyng is thought to bee the greatest prince in the worlde, and is named Santoa Raia".[20][21]
  13. ^ "[...] The Very Great Kingdom of China".[22] (Portuguese: ...O Grande Reino da China...).[23]
  14. ^ Although this is the present meaning of guó, in Old Chinese (when its pronunciation was something like /*qʷˤək/)[29] it meant the walled city of the Chinese and the areas they could control from them.[30]
  15. ^ Its use is attested from the 6th-century BC Classic of History, which states "Huangtian bestowed the lands and the peoples of the central state to the ancestors" (皇天既付中國民越厥疆土于先王).[31]
  16. ^ Owing to Qin Shi Huang's earlier policy involving the "burning of books and burying of scholars", the destruction of the confiscated copies at Xianyang was an event similar to the destructions of the Library of Alexandria in the west. Even those texts that did survive had to be painstakingly reconstructed from memory, luck, or forgery.[57] The Old Texts of the Five Classics were said to have been found hidden in a wall at the Kong residence in Qufu. Mei Ze's "rediscovered" edition of the Book of Documents was only shown to be a forgery in the Qing dynasty.
  17. ^ China is larger than Canada and the United States in terms of land area.
  18. ^ According to the Encyclopædia Britannica, the total area of the United States, at 9,522,055 km2 (3,676,486 sq mi), is slightly smaller than that of China. Meanwhile, the CIA World Factbook states that China's total area was greater than that of the United States until the coastal waters of the Great Lakes was added to the United States' total area in 1996. From 1989 through 1996, the total area of US was listed as 9,372,610 km2 (3,618,780 sq mi) (land area plus inland water only). The listed total area changed to 9,629,091 km2 (3,717,813 sq mi) in 1997 (with the Great Lakes areas and the coastal waters added), to 9,631,418 km2 (3,718,711 sq mi) in 2004, to 9,631,420 km2 (3,718,710 sq mi) in 2006, and to 9,826,630 km2 (3,794,080 sq mi) in 2007 (territorial waters added).
  19. ^ China's border with Pakistan and part of its border with India falls in the disputed region of Kashmir. The area under Pakistani administration is claimed by India, while the area under Indian administration is claimed by Pakistan.
  20. ^ Tsung-Dao Lee,[415] Chen Ning Yang,[415] Daniel C. Tsui,[416] Charles K. Kao,[417] Yuan T. Lee,[418] Tu Youyou[419] Shing-Tung Yau[420]
  21. ^ The national life expectancy at birth rose from about 31 years in 1949 to 75 years in 2008,[555] and infant mortality decreased from 300 per thousand in the 1950s to around 33 per thousand in 2001.[556]

References

  1. ^ "Erleichterung von Zuwanderung für Unternehmen vorteilhaft".
  2. ^ "Chinese Religion Data on Chinese Religions GRF". www.globalreligiousfutures.org.
  3. ^ "Xi Jinping is making great attempts to 'Sinicize' Marxist–Leninist Thought 'with Chinese characteristics' in the political sphere," states Lutgard Lams, "Examining Strategic Narratives in Chinese Official Discourse under Xi Jinping" Journal of Chinese Political Science (2018) volume 23, pp. 387–411 at p. 395
  4. ^ "China (People's Republic of) 1982 (rev. 2004)". Constitute project. Retrieved 25 August 2019.
  5. ^ a b "Demographic Yearbook—Table 3: Population by sex, rate of population increase, surface area and density" (PDF). UN Statistics. 2007. Archived from the original (PDF) on 24 December 2010. Retrieved 31 July 2010.
  6. ^ "China". Encyclopædia Britannica. Retrieved 16 November 2012.
  7. ^ "Largest Countries in the World by Area – Worldometers". worldometers.info.
  8. ^ a b c "China". CIA World Factbook. Retrieved 23 November 2013.
  9. ^ Wee, Sui-Lee (11 May 2021). "China's 'Long-Term Time Bomb': Falling Births Drive Slow Population Growth". The New York Times. Archived from the original on 11 May 2021. Retrieved 11 May 2021.
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