마라타 씨족제

Maratha clan system

마라타 씨족 체계(Shahannava Kuli Marathas, 96 Kuli Marathas 또는 96K라고도 함)는 인도의 마라타 카스트 내에 있는 96개의 가족 일족과 그들의 성을 본질적으로 연결한 네트워크를 말한다. 마라타족은 주로 인도의 마하라슈트라 주에 거주하며, 다른 주에서는 지역 인구가 적다.[1]

마라타 사회에서는 쿨이나 씨족의 회원은 귀족적인 방식으로 취득된다. 씨족에 속하는 사람들은 보통 공통의 성, 공통의 씨족 신, 공통 씨족 토템(데바크)을 가지고 있다. [2] 다양한 리스트가 작성되어 96개의 "진정한 마라타" 종족을 나열한다고 하지만, 이 리스트들은 매우 다양하고 논란이 되고 있다.[3][4] 96개 종족의 명단은 5개의 계급으로 나뉘는데, 그 중 가장 높은 계급은 5개의 주요 마라타 종족을 포함하고 있다.[5]

한 씨족 내에서, 순위는 또한 남자가 적절한 결혼의 자손인지 아니면 과도의 산물인지에 따라 달라진다. 고위 마라타 가문도 역사적으로 세습 재산이나 와탄에 대한 권리를 가지고 있었다.여기에는 한 마을의 토지 보조금, 세금 징수권(세금 파틸키 또는 치안유지(경찰 파틸키) 등이 포함되었다. 높은 계급의 가문들은 더 큰 땅이나 자거르에 대한 권리를 가지고 있었다. 와탄을 가진 종족은 대개 몇 세대로 거슬러 올라가는 족보를 가지고 있다.[6]

인도와 서양의 저명한 역사학자들과 인류학자들은 마라타가 정치적 명성을 얻은 후 96쿨(클랜)과 족보가 조작되었다고 말한다. 마라타 카스트는 마하라슈트라에 있는 여러 농민의 하위집단의 가족들이 원래의 카스트로부터 분리되어 마라타 카스트로 합쳐진 후에 형성되었다. 이들 가문은 족보를 조직하기 위해 족보를 고용했다.[7][8][9][10] 이 종족은 20세기에도 군비 인구의 대부분이 이 종족에 흡수될 정도로 융통성이 있었다.[11] 따라서 이 종족들은 의례적인 토대가 없다.[12]

참고 항목


  1. ^ "Maratha (people)". Encyclopædia Britannica. Encyclopædia Britannica Online. 2009.
  2. ^ Carter, A. T. (1973). "A Comparative Analysis of Systems of Kinship and Marriage in South Asia". Proceedings of the Royal Anthropological Institute of Great Britain and Ireland. 1973 (1973): 29–54. doi:10.2307/3031719. JSTOR 3031719. Retrieved 27 September 2020.
  3. ^ Kathleen Kuiper, ed. (2010). The Culture of India. Rosen. p. 34. ISBN 9781615301492.
  4. ^ Rosalind O'Hanlon (2002). Caste, Conflict and Ideology: Mahatma Jotirao Phule and Low Caste Protest in Nineteenth-Century Western India. Cambridge University Press. pp. 17–. ISBN 9780521523080. Retrieved 13 May 2011.
  5. ^ Louis Dumont (1980). Homo hierarchicus: the caste system and its implications. University of Chicago Press. p. 121. ISBN 9780226169637. Retrieved 13 May 2011.
  6. ^ Carter, A. T. (1973). "A Comparative Analysis of Systems of Kinship and Marriage in South Asia". Proceedings of the Royal Anthropological Institute of Great Britain and Ireland. 1973 (1973): 29–54. doi:10.2307/3031719. JSTOR 3031719. Retrieved 27 September 2020.
  7. ^ Stewart Gordon (16 September 1993). The Marathas 1600-1818. Cambridge University Press. pp. 15–17. ISBN 978-0-521-26883-7. Looking backward from ample material on the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries, we know that Maratha as a category of caste represents the amalgamation of families from several castes - Kunbi, Lohar, Sutar, Bhandari, Thakar, and even Dhangars (shepherds) – which existed in the seventeenth century and, indeed, exist as castes in Maharashtra today. What differentiated, for example, "Maratha" from "Kunbi"? It was precisely the martial tradition, of which they were proud, and the rights (watans and inams) they gained from military service. It was these rights which differentiated them from the ordinary cultivator, ironworkers and tailors, especially at the local level
  8. ^ Abraham Eraly (2000). Emperors of the Peacock Throne: The Saga of the Great Mughals. Penguin Books India. p. 435. ISBN 978-0-14-100143-2. The early history of the marathas is obscure, but they were predominantly of the sudra(peasant) class, though later, after they gained a political role in the Deccan, they claimed to be Kshatriyas(warriors) and dressed themselves up with pedigrees of appropriate grandeur, with the Bhosles specifically claiming descent from the Sidodia's of Mewar. The fact however is that the marathas were not even a distinct caste, but essentially a status group, made up of individual families from different Maharashtrian castes..
  9. ^ John Keay (12 April 2011). India: A History. Open Road + Grove/Atlantic. p. 565. ISBN 978-0-8021-9550-0. marathas not being accounted as of kshatriya status, a bogus genealogy had to be fabricated
  10. ^ Christophe Jaffrelot (2006). Dr Ambedkar and Untouchability: Analysing and Fighting Caste. Permanent Black. p. 39. ISBN 978-81-7824-156-2. His theory, which is based on scant historical evidence , doubtless echoed this episode in Maharashtra's history,whereas in fact Shivaji, a Maratha-Kunbi, was a Shudra. Nevertheless, he had won power and so expected the Brahmins to confirm his new status by writing for him an adequate genealogy. This process recalls that of Sanskritisation, but sociologists refer to such emulation of Kshatriyas by Shudras as ' Kshatriyaisation ' and describe it as a variant of Sanskritisation.
  11. ^ M. S. A. Rao (1989). Dominance and State Power in Modern India: Decline of a Social Order. Oxford University Press. p. XVI. An indication that the Shudra varna of elite marathas remained unchanged was the maratha practice of hypergamy which permitted inter-marriage with rising peasant kunbi lineages, and created a hierarchy of maratha kuls, whose boundaries were flexible enough to incorporate, by the twentieth century, most of the kunbi population.
  12. ^ John Vincent Ferreira (1965). Totemism in India. Oxford University Press. pp. 191, 202. Together with the Marathas, the Maratha Kunbi belonged originally, says Enthoven, to the same caste; and both their exogamous kuls and exogamous devaks are identical with those of the Marathas. Enthoven opines that the totemic nature of their devak system suggests that they are largely of a non-Aryan origin. ... The Kunbi cultivators are also Marathas but of a somewhat inferior social standing. The Maratha claim to belong to the ancient 96 Kshatriya families has no foundation in fact and may have been adopted after the Marathas became with Shivaji a power to be reckoned with.