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인도의 대외 관계

Foreign relations of India
인도가 외교 관계를 맺고 있는 나라들

인도는 전 세계 201개 주와 외교 관계를 맺고 있으며, 199개의 사절단과 직책을 전세계적으로 운영하고 있으며, 2020-21년에는 11개 유엔 회원국이 주최하는 새로운 사절단을 개설할 계획이다.

외무부(MEA)는 인도의 대외 관계를 담당하는 정부 기관이다.

세계 3위의 군사비 지출, 4위군사력, 5위의 명목 경제, 3위의 구매력 [2]평가로 인도는 지역 강국이자 원자력 강국,[3] 신흥 글로벌 강국이자 잠재적 초강대국이다.인도는 국제적인 영향력이 커지고 있으며 세계 정세에 있어 중요한 목소리를 가지고 있다.

영국의 식민지였던 인도는 영연방의 일원이며 다른 영연방 국가들과 관계를 유지하고 있다.그러나 1947년 영국으로부터 독립한 이후 인도는 이제 새롭게 산업화된 국가로 분류되어 다른 국가들과 광범위한 대외 관계를 발전시켰다.인도는 브라질, 러시아, 중국, 남아프리카공화국아우르는 신흥 주요국 레퍼토리 브릭스(BRICS)의 회원국으로 비동맹 운동[4]창립 멤버로서도 큰 영향력을 행사하고 있다.최근 수십 년 동안 인도는 SAARC에 의해 구체화된 이웃 우선 정책과 다른 동아시아 국가들과 보다 광범위한 경제적, 전략적 관계를 구축하기 위한 룩 이스트 정책을 포함하는 보다 광범위한 외교 정책을 추구해 왔다.또한 인도는 신흥국과 [5]선진국의 주요 경제 중심지로 널리 알려진 유엔, 아시아 개발 은행, 신개발 브릭스 은행, G-20 등 여러 국제기구의 창립 멤버 중 하나였다.

인도는 동아시아 정상회의,[6] 세계무역기구,[7] 국제통화기금(IMF),[8] G8+5[9], IBSA 대화포럼 [10]다른 국제기구에서도 중요하고 영향력 있는 역할을 해왔다.인도는 또한 아시아 인프라 투자 은행상하이 협력 기구의 회원국이기도 하다.

인도는 지역적으로 SAARCBIMSTEC의 일부입니다.인도는 여러 유엔 평화유지 임무에 참여했으며 2020년 6월 현재 5번째로 많은 병력을 파견하고 [11]있다.인도는 현재 다른 G4 [12]국가들과 함께 유엔 안전보장이사회 상임이사국 진출을 모색하고 있다.

인도는 세계 정세에 막강한 영향력을 행사하고 있으며 신흥 초강대국으로 분류될 수 있다.

역사

인도와 세계의 관계는 대영제국이 대외 및 국방 관계를 다루는 책임을 지게 된 영국 라지(1857–1947) 이후 발전해 왔다.1947년 인도가 독립했을 때, 외교 정책을 만들거나 시행한 경험이 있는 인도인은 거의 없었다.하지만, 이 나라의 가장 오래된 정당인 인도 국민회의는 1925년 해외 접촉을 하고 독립 투쟁을 홍보하기 위해 작은 외국 부서를 설립했습니다.1920년대 후반부터 독립 지도자들 사이에서 오랫동안 세계 문제에 관심이 많았던 자와할랄 네루는 국제 문제에 대한 의회의 입장을 공식화했다.1947년부터 총리 겸 외무장관으로서 네루는 세계에 대한 인도의 접근을 명확히 했다.

인도의 국제적 영향력은 독립 후 몇 년 동안 다양했다.인도의 위신과 도덕적 권위는 1950년대에 높았고 동서양으로부터 개발 원조를 획득하는 것을 용이하게 했다.비록 그 위신이 인도의 비동맹적인 태도에서 비롯되었지만, 그 나라는 냉전 정치가 남아시아의 국가 간 관계와 얽히는 것을 막을 수 없었다.파키스탄과의 격론 중인 카슈미르 문제에 대해 인도는 분쟁 지역에 대한 [13]유엔의 국민투표 요구를 거부함으로써 신뢰를 잃었다.

1960, 70년대 인도는 중국, 파키스탄과의 전쟁, 남아시아의 다른 나라와의 분쟁, 8월 19일 인도-소련 우호협력조약(Indo-S소련 조약)을 체결함으로써 파키스탄의 지지를 얻으려는 시도 등으로 선진국과 개발도상국 사이에서 국제적 위상이 퇴색했다.71.인도는 소련의 상당한 군사 및 경제적 지원을 받아 국가를 강화했지만, 소련과의 우호관계로 인해 아프가니스탄 주둔에 대한 보다 직접적인 비난을 막을 수 있다는 인식에 의해 인도의 영향력은 지역적으로나 국제적으로 축소되었다.1980년대 후반, 인도는 소련과 긴밀한 관계를 유지하면서 미국, 다른 선진국, 중국과의 관계를 개선했다.남아시아 이웃 국가, 특히 파키스탄, 스리랑카, 네팔과의 관계가 [14]외교부의 많은 에너지를 차지했다.

독립 전부터 인도 식민지 정부는 반자치 외교 관계를 유지했습니다.그것은 완전한 [15]임무를 보내고 받는 식민지를 가지고 있었다.인도는 국제연맹[16] [17]국제연합의 창립 멤버였다.인도는 1947년 영국으로부터 독립한 후 곧 영연방에 가입하여 인도네시아 민족혁명[18]같은 다른 식민지에서 독립운동을 강력하게 지지하였다.분할과 다양한 영토 분쟁, 특히 카슈미르를 둘러싼 분쟁파키스탄과의 관계를 향후 수년간 긴장시킬 것이다.냉전 기간 동안 인도는 어떠한 주요 강대국과도 제휴하지 않는 외교 정책을 채택했다.그러나 인도는 소련과 긴밀한 관계를 맺었고 소련으로부터 광범위한 군사적 지원을 받았다.

냉전의 종식은 세계의 많은 지역에서 그랬듯이 인도의 외교 정책에 큰 영향을 미쳤다.이 나라는 이제 미국,[19][20] 유럽연합,[21] 일본,[22] 이스라엘,[23] 멕시코,[24][25] 브라질과의 외교적, 경제적 관계를 강화하려고 한다.인도는 또한 동남아시아 [26]국가 연합, 아프리카 연합,[27] 아랍 연맹[28], [29]이란과 긴밀한 관계를 맺고 있다.

인도는 [30]러시아와 군사적 관계를 유지하고 있지만 이스라엘은 인도의 두 번째로 큰 군사[27] 파트너로 부상했고 인도는 [19][31]미국과 강력한 전략적 파트너십을 구축했다.나렌드라 모디의 외교정책은 아시아 지역, 더 넓게는 무역협상에 초점을 맞추는 방향으로의 전환을 시사했다.

정책.

인도
현재 상설 인도 외교 사절단이 있는 주

인도의 외교정책은 항상 이웃의 개념을 역사와 문화적 [32]공통의 중심축을 중심으로 확대되는 동심원 중 하나로 간주해 왔다.

4400만 명에 달하는 인도계 사람들이 해외에서 생활하며 일하고 있으며, 이는 모국과 중요한 연결고리를 형성하고 있다.인도 외교 정책의 중요한 역할은 그들이 [33]살고 있는 나라의 법의 틀 안에서 그들의 복지와 복지를 보장하는 것이었다.

내각총리대신의 역할

인도의 제1대 총리 자와할랄 네루, 유엔 연설(1948년)

인도의 초대 총리자와할랄 네루는 총리에게는 강한 개인적 역할을 홍보했지만 제도적 구조는 취약했다.네루는 총리 겸 외무장관을 역임했으며, 모든 주요 외교정책 결정을 자문관들과 상의한 후 인도 외무부의 고위 인사들에게 국제 업무를 맡겼다.그는 Panchshel 또는 평화 공존의 5원칙의 주요 창시자였다.

그의 후임자들은 인도의 국제 거래에 대한 상당한 통제권을 계속 행사했지만, 그들은 일반적으로 별도의 [34][35][36]외무부 장관을 임명했다.

인도의 두 번째 총리인 랄 바하두르 샤스트리(1964–66년)는 총리실을 확장하고 권력을 확대했다.1970년대까지 총리실은 인도 정부의 사실상의 조정자이자 초강수가 되었다.그 역할의 강화는 외교부의 희생으로 총리의 외교 정책 수립에 대한 통제를 강화했다.참모들은 외교부에서 제공한 것 외에 정보 및 정책 권고의 채널을 제공했다.사무실의 하위 부분인 리서치분석 윙(RAW)은 총리와 그의 보좌관들이 이용할 수 있는 정보를 크게 확장하는 방식으로 기능했습니다.RAW는 정보를 수집해 총리실에 정보 분석을 제공하고 해외 비밀 작전을 벌였다.

수상의 통제와 국무 총리의 보좌관은 그에 대한 의존도 특히 인디라 간디(1966–77과 1980–84)이 어머니를 히스기야는 보유지, 봉토와 그녀의 아들 라지브(1984–89)에 의거하고 약한 연립 정부의 기간 동안 강한 있었다.관측통 어려운 어떤 특정 주제에 의사 결정 권한의 중심부는 외부 기관 협의회는 장관은 국무 총리나 총리 자신의 유틸리티에 있는지 여부를 확인하는 것을 알았다.[37]

수상은 하지만 다양한 외국 정책 옵션과 관련 영역을 검사하기 위해 참모들과 특별한 위원회 임명할 자유가 있다.[표창 필요한]최근 예로, 만모한 싱 K.로 임명했다Subrahmanyam 2005년에 특별한 정부 대책 본부가 향후 10년간 글로벌 전략적 낙후 지역의 공부하는 계절이다.[38]그 태스크 포스는 국무 총리에게 2006년 그 결론을 제출했다.[39][40]그 보도는 아직 공공 영역에 공개되지 않았다.

외무성

교과부는 외부 기관은 인도 정부의 소속사 인도의 외국 관계를 책임 지고 있다.그 장관은 외부부 각료 회의의 일원으로 각료. 보유하고 있다.

Pranab Mukherjee은 전 재무 장관 인도의 전 대통령 인도의 전 미국 PresidentGeorge W부시 미국 대통령과 2008년.

Subrahmanyam 자이샨 카르는 현재 장관 외부 기관.보건 복지부는 장관 VMuraleedharan를 가지고 있다.인도 외교 서비스(모의 계기 비행)의 인도 외무장관은 머리와 따라서, 모든 인도(대사들)과 높은 상임 위원의 머리 역할을 한다.[41]Vinay 모한 Kwatra은 현재 외교부 장관 인도의.[42]

액트 이스트 폴리시

그 냉전 종식 후 시대에, 인도의 외교 정책의 중요한 점은 동방 정책.냉전 기간 동안, 인도와 동남아시아의 이웃 국가들과의 관계는 그다지 강하지 않았다.냉전이 종식된 후 인도 정부는 특히 인도의 외교 정책에서 이러한 불균형을 시정하는 것의 중요성을 깨달았다.그 결과, 지난 90년대 초반의 나르심하 라오 정부는 동쪽을 바라보는 정책을 발표했다.처음에는 동아시아 및 동남아시아 국가들과의 정치적, 경제적 접촉을 재개하는 데 초점을 맞췄다.

현시점에서는,[when?] 인도 정부는, ASEAN의 거대 시장이나,[43] 버마등의 ASEAN 가맹국에서 이용 가능한 에너지 자원을 활용해, 인도 북동부 후진 지역의 경제 발전을 특히 중시하고 있다.소련이 해체된 직후인 1991년 동구권 정책이 시행됐다.자유화가 시작된 후, 그것은 외교 정책에서 정부의 매우 전략적인 정책 결정이었다.만모한 싱 수상의 말을 인용하자면, "이는 또한 진화하는 세계 경제에서 인도의 위치와 세계에 대한 비전의 전략적 변화이기도 하다."

이 정책은 1992년 당시 나라시마 라오 총리가 중국, 일본, 한국, 베트남, 싱가포르와 인도를 방문해 아세안과의 중요한 대화 파트너가 되면서 처음 추진됐다.금세기 초부터 인도는 ASEAN 정상 수준의 파트너(2002년)가 되어 BIMSTEC, Ganga-Mekong 등의 지역 이니셔티브에 관여해 2005년 [44]12월에 동아시아 서밋(EAS)에 가입하는 등 이 정책을 크게 추진하고 있다.

소련이 해체된 이후 인도는 서구 열강들과 더욱 긴밀한 파트너십을 구축해 왔다.1990년대에 인도의 경제 문제와 양극화된 세계 정치 체제의 종말은 인도가 외교 정책을 재평가하고 외교 관계를 조정하도록 강요했다.이전의 정책들은 인도가 직면한 심각한 국내외 문제에 대처하기에는 불충분한 것으로 판명되었다.냉전의 종식은 비동맹의 핵심 의미를 없애버렸고 인도의 외교정책은 이렇다 할 방향성이 없었다.1990년대 초반의 어렵고 실용적인 고려는 여전히 과거의 비동맹 체제 안에서 보여졌지만, 소련의 붕괴는 러시아 및 다른 소련 이후의 국가들과의 관계가 보상할 수 없는 인도의 국제적 지렛대의 많은 부분을 제거했다.소련이 해체된 후 인도는 미국, 캐나다, 프랑스, 일본, 독일과의 관계를 개선했다.1992년 인도는 이스라엘과 공식 외교 관계를 수립했고, 이 관계는 NDA 정부이후 통합진보동맹(UPA) [45]정부 임기 동안 성장했다.

1990년대 중반 인도는 파키스탄이 지원하는 카슈미르 테러에 세계의 관심을 끌었다.카르길 전쟁은 인도의 외교적 승리를 가져왔다.미국과 유럽연합(EU)은 파키스탄군이 인도 영토에 불법 침투한 사실을 인지하고 파키스탄에 카르길 철수를 압박했다.파키스탄에 근거지를 둔 몇몇 반인도 무장 단체들은 미국과 유럽연합에 의해 테러 단체로 분류되었다.

인도는 다양한 국제 플랫폼에서 개발도상국의 이익을 대변해 왔습니다.2014년 블라디미르 푸틴, 나렌드라 모디, 딜마 호세프, 시진핑, 제이콥 주마.

1998년 인도는 두 번째로 핵무기를 실험했고, 그 결과 미국, 일본, 유럽의 인도 제재가 이루어졌다.당시 인도 국방장관이었던 조지 페르난데스는 인도의 핵 프로그램은 잠재적인 중국의 핵 위협에 대한 억지력을 제공하기 때문에 필요하다고 말했다.인도에 부과된 제재의 대부분은 [46]2001년에 해제되었다.

2001년 9.11 테러 이후 인도 정보기관들은 파키스탄과 아프가니스탄에서 알카에다와 관련 단체의 활동에 대한 중요한 정보를 미국에 제공했다.인도의 테러와의 전쟁에 대한 광범위한 공헌과 경제 급등이 여러 나라들과의 외교 관계에 도움을 주었다.인도는 지난 3년 동안 미국 및 유럽 국가들과 수많은 합동 군사 훈련을 실시하여 미국-인도 및 EU-인도 양국 관계가 강화되었습니다.2003년 [47]이후 5년 동안 인도와 유럽 및 미국과의 양자 무역은 두 배 이상 증가했다.

인도는 유엔과 WTO의 개혁을 추진해 왔지만 결과는 엇갈렸다.인도의 유엔 안전보장이사회 상임이사국 후보국은 현재 프랑스,[48][49] 러시아[51], 영국, 독일, 일본, 브라질,[50] 호주, [52]UAE 등 여러 나라의 지지를 받고 있다.2004년 미국은 인도와 핵확산금지조약의 일부가 아님에도 불구하고 핵협력협정을 체결했다.미국은 인도의 강력한 핵 비확산 기록이 이를 예외로 만들었다고 주장했지만, 이것이 다른 핵공급국 그룹 회원들에게 인도와 유사한 계약을 체결하도록 설득하지는 못했다.버락 오바마 미국 대통령은 2010년 11월 인도를 국빈 방문했을 때 인도의 유엔 안전보장이사회[53] 상임이사국 진출핵공급자 그룹, 와세나르 협정,[54][55] 호주 그룹미사일 기술 통제 체제대한 미국의 지지를 표명했다.2018년 1월 현재 인도는 바세나르 협정, 호주 그룹 및 미사일 기술 [56]통제 체제의 회원이 되었다.

전략적 파트너

인도의 경제 성장, 전략적 위치, 우호적이고 외교적인 외교 정책, 크고 활기찬 디아스포라로 인해 인도는 [57]적보다 더 많은 동맹국을 얻었다.인도는 개발도상국의 여러 나라와 우호적인 관계를 맺고 있다.인도는 주요 군사 동맹의 일부가 아니지만 대부분의 주요 강대국들과 긴밀한 전략적, 군사적 관계를 맺고 있다.

인도에서 가장 가까운 으로 여겨지는 나라들에는 아랍에미리트,[58] 러시아 연방,[59] 이스라엘,[60] 아프가니스탄,[61] 프랑스,[62] [63]부탄, 방글라데시,[64] 그리고 미국이 포함됩니다.러시아는 인도에 가장 많은 군사 장비를 공급하고 있으며 이스라엘과 프랑스가 [65]그 뒤를 잇고 있다.일부 분석가들은 이스라엘이 러시아를 제치고 인도의 최대 군사 및 전략적 [66]파트너로 부상할 것이라고 말한다.양국은 또한 대테러와 우주 [67]기술 분야에서도 광범위하게 협력하고 있다.인도는 또한 영국, 미국,[68] 일본,[69] 싱가포르, 브라질, 남아프리카 공화국,[70] 이탈리아를 포함한 여러 다른 국가들과 강력한 군사 관계를 맺고 있다.또 인도는 타지키스탄에 [71]공군기지를 운영하고 [72]있으며 2008년 카타르와 획기적인 방위협정을 체결했으며 2015년에는 [73]세이셸로부터 아제션 섬을 임대해 해군기지를 건설하고 있다.

인도는 개발도상국, 특히 남아프리카공화국, 브라질,[74][75] 멕시코와도 관계를 맺고 있다.이들 국가는 G8+5, IBSA, WTO 등의 경제 포럼을 통해 개발도상국의 이익을 대변하는 경우가 많다.인도는 개발도상국의 표준 주자 중 하나로 여겨졌으며 도하 개발 [76][77]라운드에서 30개 이상의 다른 개발도상국들을 대변한다고 주장했다.Indian Look East 정책은 동남아시아 국가, 한국, 일본 및 대만과의 경제 및 전략적 파트너십을 발전시키는데 도움을 주었다.인도는 페르시아만 국가들과 대부분의 아프리카 연합 회원들과도 우호적인 관계를 유지하고 있다.

뉴델리의 국가 안보 연구 재단은 인도의 전략적 파트너: 비교 평가(A Comparative Assessment)를 발표하고 90점 만점으로 인도의 주요 전략적 파트너 순위를 매겼다. 러시아가 62점으로 1위를 차지했고, 미국(58점), 프랑스(51점), 영국(41점), 독일(37점), 일본(34점)[78]이 그 뒤를 이었다.

파트너십 계약

인도는 여기에 나열된 24개 이상의 국가/초국가 단체와 협정 시간 순서대로 전략적 파트너십 계약을 체결했습니다.

계약서
S.no 를 참조해 주세요. 나라 계약 연월일 언급
1 프랑스. 1997 [79]
2 러시아 2000 [80]
3 독일. 2001 [81]
4 모리셔스 2003 [82]
5 이란 2003 [83]
6 영국 2004 [84]
7 미국 2004 [85]
8 르완다 2017 [86]
9 인도네시아 2005 [87]
10 중국 2005 [88]
11 브라질 2006 [89]
12 베트남 2007 [90]
13 오만 2008 [91]
14 카자흐스탄 2009 [92]
15 호주. 2009 [93]
16 말레이시아 2010 [94]
17 대한민국. 2010 [95]
18 사우디아라비아 2010 [96]
19 우즈베키스탄 2011 [97]
20 아프가니스탄 2011 [98]
21 타지키스탄 2012 [99]
22 이스라엘 2017 [100]
23 일본. 2014 [101]
24 세이셸 2014 [102]
25 몽골 2015 [103]
26 싱가포르 2015 [104]
27 아랍에미리트 2015 [105]
28 유럽 연합 2004 [106]
29 아세안 2012 [107]

장래의 계약

현재 인도는 캐나다,[109] 아르헨티나전략적[108] 파트너십을 구축하기 위한 조치를 취하고 있다.인도는 부탄 카타르와 공식적인 전략적 파트너십 협정을 체결하지 않았지만, 외교부는 종종 이들 국가와의 관계를 '전략적'[110][111]이라고 표현한다.

아프리카

알제리
부룬디
코모로
콩고
DR 콩고
에티오피아

인도와 에티오피아는 상호 협력과 지원을 바탕으로 우호적인 양국 관계를 맺고 있다.인도는 에티오피아 개발 노력의 파트너로서 ITEC 프로그래머 밑에서 에티오피아 인력을 양성하고 여러 신용카드를 제공하고 2007년에 그곳에서 범아프리카 e-Network 프로젝트를 시작했습니다.제2회 인도·아프리카 포럼 서밋은 2011년 아디스아바바에서 개최되었습니다.인도는 또한 에티오피아에서 두 번째로 큰 외국인 직접 투자원이다.

이집트
압델 나세르와 자와할랄 네루와의 자녀들이요1955년 가말 압델 나세르 치하의 이집트와 자와할랄 네루의 인도가 비동맹 운동의 창시자가 되었다.1956년 전쟁 중 네루는 영연방에서 이집트를 철수시키겠다고 위협할 정도로 이집트를 지지했다.

현대 이집트-인도 관계는 사드 자그룰과 모한다스 간디 사이의 각각[116]독립 운동의 공통적인 목표에 대한 접촉으로 거슬러 올라간다.1955년 가말 압둘 나세르 치하의 이집트와 자와할랄 네루의 인도가 비동맹 운동의 창시자가 되었다.1956년 전쟁 중 네루는 영연방에서 이집트를 철수시키겠다고 위협할 정도로 이집트를 지지했다.1967년 아랍-이스라엘 분쟁 이후 인도는 이집트와 아랍인들을 지원했다.1977년 뉴델리는 안와르 사다트 대통령의 예루살렘 방문을 "용감한" 조치라고 표현하고 이집트와 이스라엘 사이의 평화협정을 중동 문제의 정의로운 해결의 길로 나아가는 첫 번째 단계로 간주했다.이집트의 주요 인도 수출품에는 원면, 원료 및 제조 비료, 석유 및 석유 제품, 유기 및 비유기 화학 제품, 가죽 및 철 제품 등이 있다.인도에서 이집트로 들어오는 주요 수입품은 면사, 참깨, 커피, 허브, 담배, 렌즈콩, 의약품, 운송 장비이다.이집트 석유부는 또 다른 인도 기업과 천연가스 비료 공장 설립을 협상 중이다.2004년 인도 가스청(Gas Authority of India Limited)은 이집트 NAT 가스 유통 및 마케팅 회사의 지분 15%를 인수했습니다.이집트 [117]대사에 따르면 2008년 인도에 대한 이집트의 투자액은 약 7억 5천만 달러였다고 한다.2011년 아랍의 봄 이후 호스니 무바라크의 축출로 이집트는 전국적인 [citation needed]선거를 실시하기 위해 인도에 도움을 요청했다.

가봉

가봉은 뉴델리에 대사관을 두고 있다.콩고 민주 공화국 킨샤사에 있는 인도 대사관은 [118]가봉에 공동으로 설치되었다.

가나

가나와 인도의 관계는 일반적으로 경제적, 문화적 연결고리와 밀접하고 우호적이다.2010-11년 인도와 가나 간 무역액은 8억1800만 달러였으며 [119]2013년에는 10억 달러의 가치가 있을 것으로 예상된다.가나는 인도에서 자동차와 버스를 수입하고 있으며 타타 자동차와 아쇼크 레이랜드와 같은 회사들이 이 [120][121]나라에 상당한 영향력을 가지고 있다.가나의 대인도 수출품은 금, 코코아, 목재이며, 인도의 대인도 수출품은 의약품, 농기계, 전기기기, 플라스틱, 철강,[122] 시멘트이다.

인도 정부는 농업 가공, 어류 가공, 폐기물 관리, 시골 전화, 가나 [123]철도 확장 등의 분야에 사용되는 2억2천800만달러의 신용공여를 가나에 확대했다.인도는 또한 인도-아프리카 포럼 [122]서밋에 따라 가나에 인도-아프리카 정보 기술 연구소(IAIIT)와 식품 가공 사업 육성 센터를 설립할 것을 제안했습니다.

인도는 가나 경제에서 가장 큰 외국인 투자국 중 하나이다.2011년 말, 인도의 가나에 대한 투자는 약 [123]548개의 프로젝트에 걸쳐 5억5000만달러에 달했다.인도의 투자는 주로 가나의 농업과 제조업 부문에 있으며, 가나 기업은 인도 기업과 협력하여 약을 제조하고 있다.가나의 IT 부문도 인도의 영향력이 크다.인도와 가나 사이에는 [124]양자투자보호협정도 체결돼 있다.인도 라슈트리야 화학비료는 가나 서부지역 샤마지구 냥크롬에 비료 공장을 설립하는 작업을 진행 중이다.이 프로젝트에는 13억달러의 투자가 수반되며, 이 공장의 연간 생산능력은 110만 톤이며, 이 중 대부분은 인도에 [125][126]수출될 예정이다.3600만달러의 [127]투자를 수반하는 설탕 가공 공장 개발 계획도 있다.Bank of Baroda, Bharti Airtel, Tata Motors 및 Tech Mahindra[128]가나의 주요 인도 기업 중 하나입니다.

오늘날 가나에는 약 7천에서 8천명의 인도인과 인도계 사람들이 살고 있으며, 그들 중 일부는 70년 [122]이상 가나에 살고 있다.가나에는 힌두교 원주민 인구가 증가하고 있으며, 오늘날 3,000가구가 살고 있습니다.힌두교는 1940년대 후반에야 인도 분할 이후 이곳으로 이주한 신디 무역상들과 함께 가나에 처음 들어왔습니다.1970년대 중반 아크라에서 [129][130]아프리카 힌두교 수도원이 설립된 이후 가나 및 인근 토고에서 재배되고 있다.

코트디부아르

인도와 코트디부아르의 양국 관계는 최근 서아프리카 지역에서 광범위한 상업 및 전략적 파트너십을 발전시키려 함에 따라 상당히 확대되었다.아비잔에 있는 인도 외교 공관은 1979년에 문을 열었다.코트디부아르는 2004년 [131]9월 뉴델리에서 상주 사절단을 열었다.양국은 현재 무역, 투자, 경제 [132]협력을 증진시키기 위한 노력을 육성하고 있다.

케냐

인도양의 연안 국가로서 인도와 케냐 사이의 무역 관계와 상업 관계는 수 세기 전으로 거슬러 올라간다.케냐에는 우간다 철도와 구자라티 [133]상인을 건설하기 위해 영국에 의해 고용된 노동자들의 후손인 인도인과 인도계 사람들살고 있다.인도와 케냐는 무역과 상업의 유대가 깊어지고 있다.2010~2011년 양국 간 교역액은 24억달러였지만 케냐의 인도 수입액은 23억달러에 달해 무역수지는 인도에 크게 유리했다.인도는 케냐의 6대 무역 상대국이자 케냐에 대한 최대 수출국이다.인도의 케냐 수출품은 의약품 철강 기계 자동차 이며 케냐 수출품은 주로 소다재 채소 차 등 주요 상품이다.인도 기업들은 케냐에서 상당한 영향력을 가지고 있으며, 타타 그룹, 에사 그룹, Reliance IndustriesBharti Airtel과 같은 인도 기업들이 케냐에 진출하고 있습니다.

레소토

인도는 프리토리아에서 Lesotho 서비스를 제공하는 고등 위원회를 운영하고 있으며, Lesotho는 인도에서 주거 사절단을 운영하고 있습니다.레소토와 인도는 강한 유대관계를 맺고 있다.레소토는 인도의 유엔 상임이사국 진출을 지지했으며 잠무와 카슈미르도 인도의 일부로 인정했다.인도는 2010-2011년에 레소토에 1100만 달러를 수출했지만 레소토로부터 100만 달러의 상품만을 수입했다.2001년부터, 인도 육군 훈련팀은 LDF에서 여러 명의 군인들을 훈련시켰다.

라이베리아

인도와 라이베리아 공화국의 양국 관계는 양국간 무역과 전략적 협력의 증가로 확대되었다.인도는 1984년 이후 아비장(아이보리 해안) 주재 대사관과 몬로비아 주재 영사관을 통해 라이베리아에 주재하고 있다.라이베리아는 뉴델리 주재 사절단을 통해 인도에 파견되었으나 예산상의 [134]제약으로 문을 닫았습니다.

모리타니

인도는 말리 [135][136]바마코 주재 대사관에 의해 모리타니에서 대표되고 있다.인도는 [137]누악초트에도 명예 영사관이 있다.

모리셔스

인도와 모리셔스의 관계는 1730년부터 존재했고, 모리셔스가 [138]독립하기 전인 1948년에 외교 관계가 수립되었습니다.두 나라 사이에 존재하는 문화적 우호와 오랜 역사적 유대관계로 인해 그 관계는 매우 우호적이다.모리셔스 인구의 68% 이상이 인도계이며, 가장 일반적으로 인도-모리시아인으로 알려져 있습니다.경제 및 상업 기업은 수년간 증가해 왔다.인도는 2007년 이후 모리셔스의 최대 수입원이 되었고 모리셔스는 2010년 4월부터 2011년 3월까지 8억1600만 달러 상당의 상품을 수입했다.모리셔스는 2000년 4월부터 2011년 4월까지 총 552억달러의 FDI 자본유입으로 10년 이상 인도의 최대 직접투자원으로 남아 있다.인도와 모리셔스는 인도양 지역의 주요 위협으로 떠오른 해적과 싸우기 위해 협력하고 [139]테러에 대한 인도의 입장을 지지한다.

모리셔스와 인도의 관계는 1730년대 초 푸두체리와 타밀나두에서 장인들이 [138]데려온 때로 거슬러 올라간다.인도와 모리셔스 간의 외교 관계는 1948년에 수립되었다.모리셔스는 네덜란드, 프랑스, 영국의 연이은 통치를 통해 인도와 관계를 유지했다.1820년대부터 인도 근로자들은 설탕 재배지에서 일하기 위해 모리셔스로 오기 시작했다.의회에 의해 노예제도가 폐지된 1833년부터 많은 인도 노동자들이 계약 노동자로 모리셔스로 유입되기 시작했다.1834년 11월 2일, '아틀라스'라는 이름의 배는 첫 번째 인도 계약 노동자들을 싣고 모리셔스에 정박했다.

모로코

모로코는 뉴델리에 대사관이 있다.또한 뭄바이에 본부를 둔 명예 영사도 있습니다.인도는 라바트에 대사관을 운영하고 있다.두 나라 모두 비동맹 [140]운동의 일부이다.

유엔에서 인도는 모로코의 탈식민지화와 모로코 자유운동을 지지했다.인도는 1956년 6월 20일 모로코를 인정하고 1957년 [141]관계를 수립했다.인도 외무부는 "인도와 모로코는 친밀하고 우호적인 관계를 누려왔고, 지난 수년간 양국 관계는 상당한 깊이와 [142]성장을 목격했다"고 밝히고 있다.

인도 문화 위원회는 모로코에서 [143]인도 문화를 홍보한다.모로코는 인도와의 무역 관계를 증진시키고 다양한 분야에서[144] 인도의 투자를 모색하고 있다 인도 주재 모로코 대사가 거의 일주일 동안 잠무와 카슈미르 수도 스리나가르에서 보낸 이후 인도와 모로코 사이의 양국 관계가 강화되었다.이것은 [144]카슈미르에 관한 모로코와 인도와의 연대를 보여주었다.

모잠비크

인도마푸토[145] 고등판무관이 있고 모잠비크는 뉴델리에 고등판무관이 있다.

나미비아

인도와 나미비아의 관계는 따뜻하고 [146]우호적이다.

인도는 나미비아 해방 운동 당시 SWAPO의 초기 지지자 중 하나였다.최초의 SWAPO 대사관은 1986년 인도에 설치되었다.인도의 옵서버 임무는 1990년 [146]3월 21일 나미비아 독립기념일에 고등판무관으로 전환되었다.인도는 1995년 나미비아 공군이 창설된 이후 나미비아 공군의 훈련을 돕고 있다.양국은 유엔, 비동맹 운동, 영연방과 같은 상호 다자 기구에서 긴밀히 협력하고 있다.나미비아는 유엔 안전보장이사회가 인도[146]상임이사국을 포함하도록 확대하는 것을 지지한다.

2008-09년 양국 간 교역액은 약 8천만 달러였다.나미비아의 주요 수입품은 의약품, 화학품, 농기계, 자동차 및 자동차 부품, 유리 및 유리제품, 플라스틱 및 리놀륨 제품이었다.인도는 주로 비철금속, 광석, 금속 스카프를 수입했다.인도산도 인근 남아프리카공화국에 수출돼 남아프리카공화국의 수입품으로 나미비아에 다시 수입된다.나미비아 다이아몬드는 인도에 다시 수입되기 전에 종종 유럽 다이아몬드 시장에 수출된다.2009년에는 인도에 나미비아 다이아몬드를 처음으로 직접 판매했다.[146]2008년, 2개의 인도 기업이 NamPower로부터 1억500만달러의 계약을 수주해, Katima Mulilo로부터 [146]Otjiwarongo까지의 고압 직류 쌍극선을 부설했습니다.나미비아는 개발도상국의 통신 전문가를 위한 인도 기술경제 협력(ITEC) 프로그램의 수혜국입니다.

인도는 윈드훅[147] 고등판무관이 있고 나미비아는 뉴델리에 고등판무관이 있다.나미비아의 고등판무관은 방글라데시, 몰디브,[148] 스리랑카에도 파견된다.

나이지리아

인도는 이 석유가 풍부한 서아프리카 국가와 긴밀한 관계를 맺고 있다.인도 원유 수요의 20%가 나이지리아에 의해 충족되고 있다.하루에 40,000배럴(6,400m3/d)의 석유는 인도가 나이지리아로부터 공급받는 석유량이다.이 두 나라 사이의 무역은 2005-2006년에 8억 7,500만 달러이다.인도 기업들은 제조, 제약, 철광석, 철강, 정보기술, 통신 등에도 투자하고 있습니다.인도와 나이지리아는 영연방, G-77비동맹 운동의 회원국이다.1999년 올루세군 오바산조 전 나이지리아 대통령은 공화국의 날 퍼레이드에 주빈으로 참석했고, 2007년 나이지리아를 방문해 나이지리아 의회에서 연설한 만모한 싱 인도 총리도 참석했습니다.

르완다

인도-르완다 관계는 인도와 르완다 공화국 사이의 외교 관계입니다.인도는 키갈리의 명예 영사관을 통해 르완다에 대표되어 있다.르완다는 1998년부터 뉴델리 주재 대사관을 운영해 왔으며 2001년 [149]첫 주재 대사를 임명했다.

세이셸

인도-세이셸 관계인도 세이셸 공화국 사이양국 관계이다.인도는 빅토리아주고등위원회가 있고 세이셸은 [150]뉴델리에 고등위원회가 있다.

남아프리카 공화국
남아공 비폭력 저항운동 지도자들과 함께 하는 마하트마 간디(가운데).

인도와 남아프리카공화국은 20세기 중반 아파르트헤이트 정권에 항의해 외교관계를 파기했지만 항상 돈독한 관계를 유지해 왔다.영국 통치의 역사는 두 나라를 연결한다.많은 인도계 남아프리카인들이 있다.마하트마 간디는 남아프리카에서 여러 해를 보냈고, 그 기간 동안 인디언들의 권리를 위해 싸웠다.넬슨 만델라는 간디에게서 영감을 받았다.인도는 독립 후 아파르트헤이트를 강력히 비난하고 외교관계를 거부했으며 아파르트헤이트는 남아공의 국가정책으로 시행됐다.

두 나라는 현재 긴밀한 경제, 정치, 스포츠 관계를 맺고 있다.양국 간 교역액은 1992-1993년 300만 달러에서 2005-2006년 40억 달러로 증가했으며 2010년까지 120억 달러에 도달하는 것을 목표로 하고 있다.인도가 남아프리카로부터 수입하는 것의 3분의 1은 금괴이다.남아프리카에서 채굴된 다이아몬드는 인도에서 광택을 낸다.넬슨 만델라는 간디 평화상을 받았다.양국은 브라질과 함께 IBSA 대화 포럼의 회원국이기도 하다.인도는 성장하는 민간 핵 에너지 부문을 위해 자원이 풍부한 남아프리카로부터 대량의 우라늄을 공급받기를 희망하고 있습니다.

남수단

인도는 남수단이 독립국가가 된 다음날인 2011년 7월 10일에 남수단을 인정했다.현재 관계는 주로 경제적이다.Pramit Pal Chaudhuri는 힌두스탄 타임즈에 남수단에 다른 매력이 있다고[clarification needed] 썼다.인도 외무부의 문헌에 따르면 남수단은 나이지리아와 [151]앙골라를 제외하고 아프리카에서 가장 큰 석유 매장량을 보유하고 있는 것으로 알려졌다.텔레그래프지는 남수단은 세계에서 가장 가난한 국가 중 하나이지만 석유가 풍부한 국가라고 보도했다.외무부 관리들은 뉴델리가 남수단의 유전 투자를 늘리는 데 큰 관심을 갖고 있다고 말했습니다.남수단은 과거 통일된 수단의 [152]유전의 3분의 2 이상을 소유하고 있습니다."

인도는 남수단이 제공할 수 있는 석유자원에 대한 대가로 사회기반시설 개발, 보건, 교육, 농촌개발에 대한 공무원들의 훈련을 기꺼이 지원할 것이라고 말했다."우리는 인도가 [152]남수단을 도울 수 있는 확실한 로드맵을 작성했습니다."

수단

인도-수단 관계는 자국의 초기 발전 단계부터 항상 오래되고, 가깝고, 우호적인 것으로 특징지어져 왔다.인도 독립 당시 수단은 푸네에 있는 국방아카데미의 일부를 짓기 위해 7만 파운드를 기부했다.NDA의 본관은 수단 블록이라고 불립니다.두 나라는 인도가 새로 독립한 아프리카 국가를 인정한 최초의 아시아 국가 중 하나로 알려진 직후 외교 관계를 수립했다.인도와 수단은 경제적 이익뿐만 아니라 지리적, 역사적 유사성도 공유한다.두 나라 모두 영국의 식민지였고 수역을 통해 사우디 아라비아와 원격으로 국경을 접하고 있다.인도와 수단은 이스라엘과의 긴밀한 관계, 수단과의 국경 문제에 대한 이집트와의 연대, 파키스탄과 방글라데시와의 긴밀한 유대감 의 문제에도 불구하고 우호적인 관계를 유지하고 있다.인도는 또한 다르푸르에 유엔 평화유지군으로 일부 병력을 파견했다.

포장이요

토고는 2010년 10월 뉴델리에 대사관을 개설했다.가나 아크라에 있는 인도 고등 위원회는 동시에 토고에 인가된다.토고 대통령 Gnassingbé Eyadema는 1994년 9월 인도를 공식 방문했다.이번 방문에서 양국은 공동위원회를 [153]설립하기로 합의했다.

우간다

인도와 우간다는 1965년 외교관계를 수립했으며 각각 상대국의 수도에 고등판무관을 두고 있다.캄팔라에 있는 인도 고등 위원회는 부룬디와 르완다에 동시 인증을 가지고 있다.우간다에는 대규모 인도 커뮤니티가 있으며, 인도-우간다 관계는 정치, 경제, 상업, 문화 [154]및 과학 협력을 포함한 광범위한 분야에 걸쳐 있습니다.

인도와 우간다의 관계는 몸바사-캄팔라 철도 노선을 건설하기 위해 19세기에 우간다에 30,000명 이상의 인도인들이 도착하면서 시작되었다.우간다 독립 운동가들은 인도 독립 운동의 성공에 의해 우간다 독립을 위한 투쟁에서 영감을 받았고 인도의 총리 자와할랄 네루의 [155][156]지원도 받았다.인도-우간다 관계는 우간다 독립 이후 이디 아민 정권을 제외하고는 양호했다.1972년 아민은 인도계 주민 5만5천 명과 상업경제적 기반을 다져온 인도인 [156][157]5천 명을 추방하였다는 이유로 이들은 우간다 원주민을 착취하고 있다고 비난했다.무세베니 요웨리 대통령이 집권1980년대 중반 이후 관계는 꾸준히 개선되고 있다.오늘날 약 20,000명의 인도인들과 PIO들이 [156]우간다에 살고 있거나 일하고 있다.우간다 [158][159]경제에서 인도인의 역할을 감안할 때, 인도인과 우간다인 사이의 민족적 긴장은 양국 관계에서 되풀이되는 이슈였다.

잠비아
짐바브웨
아프리카 연합

2011년 현재, 인도의 대 아프리카 무역 총액은 460억 미 달러 이상, 총 투자 총액은 110억 미 달러 이상이며,[160] 아프리카에서 다양한 프로젝트를 수행하는 데 57억 미 달러의 차관을 가지고 있습니다.

인도는 대부분의 역사 동안 사하라 이남 아프리카 국가들과 좋은 관계를 유지해왔다.1997년 모리셔스를 방문한 양국은 인도로부터의 자본재, 컨설팅 서비스 및 내구소비자 수입에 자금을 대기 위해 INR 1억500만 달러(300만 달러)의 새로운 신용협정을 체결했다.인도 정부는 세이셸 국민들과 쌀과 의약품 협정을 맺었다.인도는 에티오피아, 케냐, 우간다, 탄자니아와 역사적으로 긴밀한 관계를 계속 구축해 왔습니다.에티오피아 정무장관들의 방문은 교육 및 기술훈련, 수자원 관리 및 소규모 산업 발전 분야에서 양국간 협력을 강화할 기회를 제공했다.이것은 인도가 다른 서구 국가들에 의해 일반적으로 잊혀지는 국가들로부터 혜택을 얻을 수 있게 해 주었다.타보 음베키 남아프리카공화국 대통령은 서방 국가들의 제재를 피하기 위해 인도와 남아프리카 공화국 사이의 전략적 관계를 촉구했습니다.인도는 앙골라, 보츠와나, 레소토, 말라위, 모잠비크, 나미비아, 스와질란드, 잠비아, 짐바브웨와의 친밀하고 우호적인 관계를 지속해 왔습니다.외무장관은 남-남 파트너십 정신으로 이들 국가와의 협력을 강화하겠다는 인도의 확신을 재확인하기 위해 1996-97년 각국에 특사 파견을 주선했다.이러한 관계는 아프리카 국가들과 다른 나라들이 가지지 [161]못할 강력한 위치를 만들어냈다.

아메리카 대륙

라틴 아메리카의 개발도상국, 특히 브라질과 멕시코의 공통점은 계속해서 증가하고 있다.인도와 브라질은 G4를 통한 안보리 개혁에 계속 협력하고 있으며, IBSA 대화 포럼을 통해 전략적, 경제적 협력도 강화했다.메르코수르(브라질 아르헨티나 우루과이 파라과이)와의 특혜무역협정(PTA) 체결 절차가 진행 이며 칠레와의 협상도 진행 중이다.[162]루이스 이나시우 룰라 다 실바 브라질 대통령은 2004년 [163]뉴델리에서 열린 공화국 기념행사의 주빈이었다.

북쪽

앤티가 바부다

양국은 외교 관계를 맺고 범죄인 인도 [164][165]협정을 맺고 있다.

바베이도스

인도와 바베이도스는 1966년 11월 30일(바베이도스가 [166]독립한 날) 외교 관계를 수립했다.그 날 인도 정부는 바베이도스의 국회 [167]의원회관에서 바베이도스에게 왕위를 수여했다.인도는 수리남[168][169][170] 주재 대사관과 세인트 제임스 [171]홀타운 주재 인도 영사관을 통해 바베이도스에 대표되어 있다.2011-12년 인도 소재 Era's Lucknow Medical College and Hospital은 미국 바베이도스 대학(AUB)을 설립하여 섬 최초의 외국인 학생용 의과대학으로 설립하였습니다.2015년 바베이도스와 인도 정부는 공동 오픈 스카이 협정에 [172]서명했다.오늘날 인도에서 온 약 3,000명의 사람들이 바베이도스를 집으로 부른다.3분의 2는 수라티스로 알려진 인도의 수라트 지역 출신이다.대부분의 수라티족은 거래에 관여하고 있다.나머지는 주로 신디스의 조상이다.

벨리즈

인도는 벨리즈 시티에 명예 영사관이 있고 벨리즈는 뉴델리에 명예 영사관이 있습니다.양국 간 교역액은 2014년 4,530만 달러에서 그 후 꾸준히 증가하고 있다.벨리즈와 인도는 중앙아메리카통합시스템(SICA)에서 반테러, 기후변화, 식량안보를 논의하는 대화를 하고 있다.인도는 2013년에 벨리즈와 세금 정보 교환 협정을 체결했습니다.인도는 또한 SICA 국가에 대한 대외 원조 약속의 일환으로 벨리즈에 3천만 달러를 제공하고 있다.벨리즈 시민은 인도 기술 및 경제 협력 프로그램과 인도 문화 협력 협의회따라 인도 대학에서 장학금을 받을 수 있습니다.

벨리즈의 동인도 인구는 전체 인구의 4%로 추정되기 때문에 두 나라는 긴밀한 문화적 유대를 공유하고 있습니다.

캐나다
쥐스탱 트뤼도 캐나다 총리가 뉴델리 라슈트라파티 바반에서 가족과 함께 환영식을 갖고 있다.(2018년)

캐나다 정부에 따르면 인도-캐나다 관계는 "민주주의에 대한 상호 약속", "다중주의", "사람과 사람 사이의 연결"에 기반을 둔 인도와 캐나다 사이의 오랜 양국 관계이다.2004년 인도와 캐나다의 양국 간 교역액은 약 24억5천만 달러였다.그러나 에어인디아 조사와 사건의 잘못된 대처는 인도-캐나다 관계에 차질을 빚었다.인도의 미소 부처의 핵실험은 콜롬보 계획의 조건을 어겼다는 주장과 함께 양국간의 관계를 얼어붙게 만들었다. 크레티앙과 로메오 르블랑은 1990년대 후반에 인도를 방문했지만 포크란 2호 실험 이후 관계가 다시 중단되었다.

인도의 우표 - 2017 - 디왈리 - 캐나다와의 공동 발행

캐나다-인도 관계는 2005년 이후 상승 궤도에 올랐다.모든 수준의 정부, 두 나라의 민간 조직, 학술 기관 및 개인 대 개인 접촉(특히 디아스포라 네트워크)은 양국 관계의 중요한 개선을 위해 개인적이고 일치된 노력을 통해 기여해왔다.

양국 정부는 양국 관계를 진전시키기 위한 중요한 정책 틀에 합의했다.특히 핵협력협정(2010년 6월 체결)과 현재의 포괄적 경제동반자협정(CEPA)의 성공적인 협상은 캐나다-인도 관계의 분수령이 되고 있다.

양국 정부는 잃어버린 시간을 만회하기 위해 노력했으며 2013년까지 CEPA 협상을 완료하고 2014년까지 CEPA 비준을 보장하기를 간절히 바라고 있다.CEPA 체결 후 캐나다와 인도는 공동 이익을 공동 행동으로 전환하고 지속적인 협력을 위해 효과적으로 대응할 수 있는 능력에 따라 파트너십 영역을 정의해야 한다.예를 들어 2012년 6월 멕시코에서 열린 G20 정상회의에서 만모한총리와 스티븐 하퍼 총리의 '풀어사이드' 회담과 토론토에서 열린 S.M. 크리슈나 외무장관과 존 베어드 간의 이전 회담에서는 정상들은 식량 안보와 그 이상의 포괄적인 파트너십을 개발하는 것에 대해 논의했다.e 에너지 부문(주로 탄화수소)의 연계 가능성.

쿠바

인도와 쿠바의 관계는 가깝고 따뜻하다.두 나라 모두 비동맹 운동의 일부이다.쿠바는 유엔 안전보장이사회를 보다 민주적으로 대표할 것을 거듭 촉구하며 개혁된 [173]안전보장이사회 상임이사국으로의 인도의 입후보를 지지하고 있다.피델 카스트로는 "인도의 성숙은 비동맹 운동의 기초가 된 원칙을 무조건 고수함으로써 비동맹 국가들이 인도 간디(전 총리)의 현명한 지도 아래 보루로서 그들의 불가침한 역할을 계속 진행할 것을 보장한다"고 말했다.평화, 국가의 독립, 발전을 위해..."[174]

인도는 1960년 1월에 문을 연 쿠바의 수도 아바나에 대사관이 있다.이것은 쿠바 [175]혁명에 대한 인도의 연대를 상징하기 때문에 특히 의미가 있었다.인도는 쿠바 [176]혁명 이후 새로운 쿠바 정부를 인정한 세계 최초의 국가 중 하나였다.

쿠바는 인도의 [177]수도 뉴델리에 대사관을 두고 있다.

자메이카

인도와 자메이카의 관계는 대체로 우호적이고 가깝다.영연방, 의회 민주주의, 영어, [178][179]크리켓 등 영국의 식민지 지배로부터 물려받은 많은 문화적, 정치적 유대관계가 있다.

두 나라는 비동맹 운동, 유엔, 영연방 회원국으로 자메이카는 개혁된 유엔 안전보장이사회 상임이사국 진출을 지지하고 있다.

영국 시대 동안, 인도인들은 자발적으로 자메이카와 서인도 제도에서 일자리를 구했다.이로 인해 자메이카에 인디언 출신 인구가 상당히 많아졌다.인도는 킹스턴에 [178]고등판무관을 두고 자메이카는 뉴델리에[180] 영사관을 두고 있으며 조만간 고등판무관으로 업그레이드할 계획이다.

멕시코
멕시코시티의 인디언

멕시코는 인도의 매우 중요하고 중요한 경제 파트너입니다.노벨상 수상자이자 인도 주재 대사인 옥타비오 파즈는 인도의 역사와 [181]문화를 분석한 책 '인 라이트 오브 인디아'를 썼다.양국은 지역 강국이자 주요 20개국(G20) 회원국이다.

니카라과

인도와 니카라과의 양국 관계는 SICA 대화와 니카라과 장관의 인도 방문으로 제한돼 왔다.인도는 [184]니카라과에 명예총영사를 두고 파나마시티 주재 인도대사관에 겸임하고 있으며 니카라과는 인도에 대사관을 두었으나 뉴델리 [185]주재 명예총영사관으로 격하됐다.현 외무장관 사무엘 산토스 로페스는 2008년 SICA-인도 외무장관 회의와 2013년[186] 당시 외무장관 살만 쿠르시드와의 고위급 회담을 위해 인도를 방문했으며, 2012-13년에는 양국 간 무역이 총 6,012만 달러에 달했다.

파나마

파나마와 인도의 양국 관계는 세계 무역과 무역에서 파나마 운하가 수행하는 중요한 역할을 반영하며 꾸준히 성장하고 있다.게다가 파나마에는 15,000명 이상의 인도인들이 살고 있어 지난 10년 동안 외교 관계가 상당히 증가했다.

2016년 확장 운하의 개통은 해양 연결의 새로운 전망을 제공할 것으로 기대된다.인도는 양국 간 무역 3배의 흐름과 같은 무역 관계를 신속하게 강화하고자 파나마에 있는 이러한 중계 무역 시설을 활용하여 라틴 아메리카의 더 넓은 시장에 접근하고자 한다.인도는 자유무역협정의 추진과 함께 은행 및 해양산업, 콜론 자유무역지대([187]Colon Free Trade Zone)의 멀티모달센터 등 파나마 경제의 다양한 분야에 대한 투자를 촉진하고 싶어 한다.

파라과이

인도와 파라과이의 양국 관계는 상업, 문화, 전략적 협력으로 전통적으로 굳건했다.인도는 아르헨티나 부에노스아이레스 주재 대사관을 통해 파라과이에 대표적이다.인도는 또한 아순시온에 명예 총영사를 두고 있다.파라과이는 [188]2005년 인도에 대사관을 개설했다.

인도 공화국과 트리니다드 토바고 공화국 사이의 양국 관계는 최근 몇 년 동안 전략적이고 상업적인 관계를 구축하면서 상당히 확대되었다.양국은 [189]1962년에 정식으로 외교 관계를 수립했다.

인도는 트리니다드 토바고의 영국 지배로부터의 독립을 지지했고 트리니다드 토바고가 공식적으로 독립한 해인 1962년에 외교 사절단을 설립했다.그들은 다양한 천연자원과 경제적 자원을 보유하고 있으며 각 지역에서 가장 큰 경제대국이다.두 나라 모두 영연방, 유엔, G-77 및 비동맹 운동(NAM)의 회원국이다.

인도 공화국은 스페인 항구에서 고등 위원회를 운영하고 트리니다드 토바고 공화국은 뉴델리에서 고등 위원회를 운영하고 있습니다.

★★★

제2차 세계대전을 전후해 루스벨트 대통령 치하의 미국은 영국의 [190][191]동맹국임에도 불구하고 인도의 독립운동에 강한 지지를 보냈다.인도 독립 이후 인도가 비동맹 운동을 주도하고 소련의 지원을 받는 등 인도와 미국의 관계는 미온적이었다.미국은 1962년 중국과의 전쟁 중에 인도를 지원했다.냉전의 대부분 기간 동안 미국은 주로 소련에 우호적인 인도를 봉쇄하고 소련의 아프가니스탄 점령에 맞서 아프가니스탄 무자헤딘을 지원하기 위해 파키스탄을 이용하는 방식으로 파키스탄과 우호적인 관계를 유지하는 경향이 있었다.1971년 체결된 인도-소련 우호협력조약도 인도를 미국에 대항하도록 했다.

1971년 리처드 닉슨 미국 대통령인디라 간디 인도 총리.그들은 개인적 반감이 깊어 양국 관계를 물들였다.

중-인도 전쟁1965년 인도-파키스탄 전쟁 이후 인도는 외교 정책에 상당한 변화를 가져왔다.소련과 긴밀한 관계를 맺고 소련으로부터 막대한 군사 장비와 재정 지원을 받기 시작했다.이것은 인도-미국 관계에 악영향을 끼쳤다.미국은 파키스탄을 친소련 성향의 인도에 대한 균형추로 보고 파키스탄을 원조하기 시작했다.이 때문에 인도와 미국 사이에 의혹의 분위기가 조성됐다.소련이 아프가니스탄을 점령하고 인도가 소련을 노골적으로 지지하면서 인도-미국 관계는 상당한 차질을 겪었다.

카말라 해리스는 미국의 49대 부통령입니다.그녀는 최초의 여성, 최초의 유색인종이자 최초의 인도계 미국인 부통령이다.

인도와 미국의 관계는 1970년대 초에 사상 최저치를 기록했다.동파키스탄에서 잔학행위가 있었다는 보도와 특히 의 전보에도 불구하고 파키스탄군이 자행하고 있는 대량학살 행위가 있다는 말을 들었다.헨리 키신저 국무장관과 리처드 닉슨 미국 대통령은 당시 야히아 칸 파키스탄 대통령파키스탄 육군을 단념시키기 위해 아무것도 하지 않았다.키신저는 최근 인도와 소련 사이에 체결된 우호조약의 결과로 남아시아로의 소련의 확장을 특히 우려했으며,[192] 미국과의 암묵적인 동맹의 가치를 중국에 입증하려고 했다.1971년 인도-파키스탄 전쟁인도군무크티 바히니와 함께 동파키스탄을 해방시키는 데 성공했고 곧 독립을 선언했다.닉슨은 서파키스탄에 대한 인도의 침공은 이 지역에 대한 소련의 완전한 지배를 의미하며, 미국의 세계적 위상과 미국의 새로운 암묵적인 동맹국인 중국의 지역적 위치를 심각하게 훼손할 것이라고 우려했다.미국의 진정한 우방국임을 중국에 보여주기 위해, 그리고 의회가 파키스탄에 부과한 제재를 직접적으로 위반하여, 닉슨은 파키스탄에 군사 물자를 보내 요르단과 [193]이란을 경유하도록 하는 한편, 중국이 파키스탄에 대한 무기 공급을 늘리도록 독려했다.

파키스탄의 동부지역 패배가 확실해 보이자 닉슨은 USS 엔터프라이즈호벵골만에 보냈는데, 이는 인도인들에게 핵위협으로 간주되었다.엔터프라이즈호는 1971년 12월 11일에 역에 도착했다.12월 6일과 13일, 소련 해군은 핵미사일로 무장한 두 무리의 함정을 블라디보스토크에서 급파했다. 그들은 1971년 12월 18일부터 1972년 1월 7일까지 미국 특별 조사단 74호를 따라 인도양으로 들어갔다.소련은 또한 핵잠수함을 인도양에 [194]파견하여 USS 엔터프라이즈의 위협을 막았다.

미국의 노력이 전세를 반전시키는 데는 효과가 없었지만 USS 엔터프라이즈호 사건은 이후 핵무기 [195]개발에 대한 인도의 관심을 촉발시킨 계기가 된 것으로 보인다.미국의 종전 정책은 주로 서파키스탄의 [196]'철폐'를 막기 위해 서부 지역에 대한 전쟁의 확대를 제한해야 한다는 필요성에 의해 결정되었다.전쟁이 끝난 지 몇 년이 지난 후, 많은 미국 작가들은 전쟁 중의 백악관 정책이 심각한 결함이 있고 미국의 [197]이익에 좋지 않다고 비판했다.인도는 몇 년 후 핵실험을 실시했고, 그 결과 미국이 제재를 가하여 두 나라를 더욱 멀어지게 했다.최근 몇 년간 키신저는 인도-파키스탄 전쟁 당시 인디언들을 "비겁한 자"[198]라고 표현한 발언으로 비난을 받았다.Kissinger는 그 후 [199]그 논평에 대해 유감의 뜻을 표명했다.

이후

냉전 종식 이후 인도와 미국의 관계는 극적으로 개선되었다.이는 미국과 인도가 모두 민주주의 국가이고 크고 성장하는 무역 관계를 가지고 있다는 사실에 의해 크게 촉진되었다.걸프전 동안 인도 경제는 극도로 어려운 시기를 겪었다.인도 정부는 자유화된 경제 시스템을 채택했다.소련이 해체된 후 인도는 나토 회원국들, 특히 캐나다, 프랑스, 독일과의 외교 관계를 개선했다.1992년 인도는 이스라엘과 공식 외교관계를 수립했다.

최근 몇 년 동안 인도와 미국의 관계는 2014년 [200]이후 나렌드라 모디 총리 재임 기간 동안 여전히 크게 개선되었습니다.

반응

1998년 인도는 핵무기를 실험했고, 이로 인해 미국, 일본, 유럽의 인도 제재가 이루어졌다.당시 인도 국방장관이었던 조지 페르난데스는 인도의 핵 프로그램은 잠재적 핵 위협에 대한 억지력을 제공하기 때문에 필요하다고 말했다.인도에 부과된 제재의 대부분은 2001년에 해제되었다.인도는 먼저 무기를 사용하지 않고 공격받으면 방어하겠다고 분명히 밝혔다.

바이든 미국 .

미국이 1998년 5월 인도의 핵실험에 대응해 가한 경제 제재는 적어도 처음에는 인도-미국 관계에 심각한 손상을 입힐 것으로 보였다. 클린턴 대통령1994년 핵확산방지법에 따라 광범위한 제재를 가했다.핵산업에 관여하는 인도 실체에 대한 미국의 제재와 인도에서의 비인도적 지원 프로젝트에 대한 국제 금융기관의 대출 반대.미국은 인도에게 포괄적핵실험금지조약(CTBT)에 조건 없이 즉각 서명하도록 독려했다.미국은 또한 인도와 파키스탄의 미사일과 핵실험과 배치에 대한 자제를 요구했다.1998년 핵실험 이후 시작된 비확산 대화는 양국 간 이해의 많은 격차를 메웠다.

★★★★★

빌라 오캄포 구내에서의 노벨 로라테 라빈드라나트 타고르와 아르헨티나 작가 빅토리아 오캄포

양국 간의 공식적인 관계는 1949년에 처음 수립되었다.인도는 부에노스아이레스에 대사관이 있고 아르헨티나는 뉴델리에 대사관이 있다.현재 아르헨티나 주재 인도 대사(우루과이와 파라과이에 겸임)는 R Viswanathan입니다.인도 외무부는 1968년 비자협정에 따라 통과비자와 관광비자 수수료가 폐지됐다.2009년 10월 아르헨티나 대통령 방문 중 체결된 새로운 비자 협정에 따라 5년간 복수 입국 비자를 무료로 발급하기로 합의했다.부에노스아이레스 주재 인도 대사관은 아르헨티나 방문객들에게 카페 콘 비자(비자가 들어간 커피)를 준다.지원자들은 커피에 초대되고 비자는 즉시 발급된다.이는 아르헨티나 언론, 국민, 외무장관 [201]본인에 의해 높이 평가되고 있습니다.

A.P.J. 압둘 칼람 박사슈리 아탈 비자리 바지페이 총리가 주빈으로 브라질 연방공화국 대통령 루이스 이나시오 룰라 다 실바 대통령(2004년 공화국 퍼레이드)을 맞이하고 있다.

브라질과 인도의 관계는 과학기술, 제약, 우주 등 브릭스 회원국이면서 다양한 분야로 확대됐다.2007년의 쌍방향 무역은 2004년의 12억 달러에서 31억 2천만 달러로 거의 3배 증가했습니다.인도는 이 라틴 아메리카의 거대 기업과의 관계에 엄청난 중요성을 부여하고 있으며, 앞으로 협력의 영역이 확대되기를 바라고 있다.

양국은 개발도상국이 안보리 상임이사국에 참여하기를 원하고 있다.왜냐하면 안보리는 보다 민주적이고 합법적이며 대표성이 있어야 한다.G4는 G4에 해당합니다.

브라질과 인도는 IBSA(남남북협력) 이니셔티브에 깊이 관여하고 있으며 다민족, 다인종, 다종교 3개 개발도상국 간의 이 3국간 협력에 가장 중점을 두고 있으며 다원주의와 민주주의라는 공통원칙에 얽매여 있다.

★★★

양국은 1959년 1월 19일 수교했다.그 이후 양국 관계는 정치, 상업, 문화 및 학술 교류를 촉진하기 위한 외교 방문이 잦아지면서 점차적으로 증가하고 있다.콜롬비아는 현재 인도 [202]기업의 중남미 진출지입니다.

Eucador()

인도와 베네수엘라의 외교 관계는 1959년 [203]10월 1일에 수립되었다.인도는 카라카스에 대사관을, 베네수엘라는 뉴델리에 대사관을 두고 있다.

국가 원수와 정부, 그리고 다른 고위 관리들의 방문이 여러 차례 있었다.우고 차베스 대통령은 2005년 [203]3월 4일부터 7일까지 뉴델리를 방문했다.차베스 대통령은 APJ 압둘 칼람 인도 대통령과 만모한 싱 총리를 만났다.양국은 양국 관계 증진을 위한 공동위원회와 탄화수소 분야 협력에 관한 6개 협정에 서명했다.니콜라스 마두로 외무장관은 2012년 [204]8월 7일 뉴델리에서 열린 인도-셀락 트로이카 외무장관회의 제1차 회의에 참석하기 위해 인도를 방문했다.

인도 선거관리위원회(ECI)와 베네수엘라 전국선거관리위원회(CNE)는 2012년 인도 선거관리위원 V S Sampath가 카라카스를 방문했을 때 MOU에 서명했다.기업부 [204]장관은 2013년 3월 차베스 대통령의 국장에 참석하기 위해 베네수엘라를 방문했다.인도 대통령과 총리는 차베스의 죽음에 애도를 표했다.상원인 라지야 사바는 그의 죽음을 기념하기 위해 1분간의 묵념을 했다.스미타 푸루쇼탐 대사는 2013년 [205]4월 19일 차베스의 후계자 니콜라스 마두로 취임식에서 인도를 대표했다.

베네수엘라 시민들은 인도 기술경제 협력 프로그램과 인도 문화 협력 [204][206]위원회에서 장학금을 받을 자격이 있습니다.

인도는 자원이 풍부한 중앙아시아 국가와의 강력한 관계를 발전시키기 위해 노력하고 있다.인도 석유회사인 석유천연가스공사는 카자흐스탄에서 석유 탐사와 석유 개발 보조금을 받았다.양국은 석유화학, 정보기술, 우주기술 분야에서 협력하고 있다.카자흐스탄은 인도에 석유와 가스 탐사를 위해 5블럭을 제공했다.인도와 카자흐스탄은 건설, 광물, 야금 분야에서 공동 프로젝트를 시작할 예정이다.인도는 또한 프라티바 파틸 대통령과 누르술탄 나자르바예프 카자흐스탄 대통령이 참석한 가운데 범죄인 인도조약을 포함한 4개 협정을 체결했다.카자흐스탄은 인도 원자력공사와 Kazatom Prom 사이에 MOU에 따라 우라늄과 관련 제품을 공급한다.이들 MOU는 세계 2위의 매장량을 보유한 카자흐스탄과 중앙아시아 국가에 원자력발전소를 건설하는 인도가 우라늄을 공동 탐사할 가능성도 열어놓고 있다.

1991년 타지키스탄이 인도와 우호적인 소련 해체로 독립하면서 인도와 타지키스탄 사이에 외교관계가 수립되었다.타지키스탄은 중앙아시아에서 전략적으로 중요한 위치를 차지하고 있으며, 아프가니스탄과 국경을 접하고 있으며 아프가니스탄 영토의 일부를 파키스탄과 분리해 있다.탈레반과 알카에다와 싸우는 인도의 역할과 중국 및 파키스탄과의 전략적 경쟁은 타지키스탄과의 관계를 전략 및 안보 정책에 중요하게 만들었다.공통의 노력에도 불구하고, 양국간 무역은 비교적 저조해, 2005년에는 1209만달러, 인도의 타지키스탄 수출은 620만달러, 수입은 589만달러였다.인도의 주둔과 활동은 반(反) 탈레반 아프간 북부동맹(ANA)에 대한 인도의 광범위한 지원을 시작으로 큰 의미가 있었다.인도는 Farkhor 공군 기지를 보수하기 시작했고 인도 공군의 항공기를 그곳에 배치했다.Farkhor 공군 기지는 2006년에 전면 가동되기 시작했으며 12대의 MiG-29 폭격기와 훈련기가 주둔할 예정이다.

인도는 타슈켄트에 대사관이 있다.우즈베키스탄은 뉴델리에 대사관이 있다.우즈베키스탄이 인도 문화에 큰 영향을 미친 것은 페르가나바부르(현재의 우즈베키스탄)가 먼저 아프가니스탄에서 남쪽으로 제국을 세운 뒤 인도에 제국을 세운 무굴 제국 덕분이다.

★★★★

★★★
중국 컨테이너선이 인도 자와할랄 네루항에서 짐을 내리고 있다.2015년까지 양국 간 교역액은 650억 달러를 넘어섰고,[207] 중국은 인도의 단일 최대 교역국이 되었습니다.

1962년 중-인도 전쟁, 1967년 나투라, 초라 사건, 악사이친아루나찰프라데시주대한 국경 분쟁 등으로 인한 의혹은 여전하지만 1988년 이후 중-인도 관계는 점차 개선되고 있다.양국은 국경 지역의 긴장을 줄이고, 무역과 문화 관계를 확대하며,[209] 관계를 정상화하려고 노력해왔다.

양국 간의 일련의 고위급 방문이 관계 개선에 도움이 되었다.1996년 12월 장쩌민(江澤民) 중국 국가주석이 남아시아 순방 중 인도를 방문했다.뉴델리에 있는 동안, 그는 분쟁 중인 국경을 위한 일련의 신뢰 구축 조치에 서명했습니다.1998년 5월 인도 국방장관이 중국의 핵실험을 정당화하면서 중국과 인도의 관계는 잠시 후퇴했다.그러나 1999년 6월 카르길 사태 당시 자스완트 싱 당시 외무장관은 베이징을 방문해 인도가 중국을 위협으로 생각하지 않는다고 밝혔다.2001년까지 인도와 중국간의 관계는 개선되었고, 양측은 2000년 1월 17대 카르마파티베트에서 인도로의 이주를 섬세하고 재치 있게 처리했다.2003년 인도는 티베트를 중국의 일부로 공식 인정했고, 중국은 2004년 시킴을 인도의 공식적인 부분으로 인정했습니다.

2004년 이후 중국과 인도의 경제발전은 또한 두 나라 사이의 더 긴밀한 관계를 형성하는데 도움을 주었다.2013-14년 중-인도 무역은 654억7천만 달러에 달해 중국은 인도의 [210]단일 최대 교역국이 되었습니다.인도와 중국 사이의 경제적 의존도가 높아짐에 따라 인도와 중국 모두 국경 [211]분쟁을 해결하고자 하는 열정으로 정치적으로 두 나라가 더욱 가까워졌다.그들은 또한 2008년[212] WTO 도하 라운드에서부터 지역 자유 무역 [213]협정까지 여러 가지 문제에 대해 협력해 왔다.인도-미국 핵 협정과 마찬가지로 인도와 중국도 민간[214]에너지 분야에서 협력하기로 합의했다.그러나 중국의 경제적 이해관계가 인도의 [215]이해와 충돌했다.양국은 아프리카에서 가장[216] 큰 아시아 투자국이며 아프리카의 대규모 천연자원에 [217]대한 지배권을 놓고 경쟁해왔다.

부탄 도클람에서 벌어진 두 병사들의 대치 사태로 긴장된 상황이 있었지만 너무 [218]일찍 해결됐다.

현 인도 총리, 나렌드라 모디, 시진핑 중국 국가주석, 중국 G7 정상회의(2016년)

갈완 계곡[219][220] 교전과 그 진행으로 인해 관계가 단절되었다.인도는 중국산 [221]제품의 수입을 중단했다.이에 [222]대응하여 철도, 네트워크, 여러 품목 생산과 관련된 중국 회사와의 계약을 취소하는 등 다양한 조치가 취해졌다.

우한에서 발생한 코로나 바이러스 대유행도 양국 [223]관계를 방해했다.채권 왜곡에 이어 양측은 [224]LAC 분쟁의 책임을 서로에게 돌렸다.8월 29일부터 30일까지, 중국은 중요한 언덕 꼭대기에 도달하기 위해 LAC를 건너려 했지만,[225] 인도군이 LAC 근처의 중요한 꼭대기를 획득하는 데 유리했기 때문에 실패했다고 보도되었다.인도는 250개 이상의 중국어 [226]앱을 금지했으며, 10월 16일 AC, 냉장고, 쿨러의 [227]중국 수입을 금지했다.여러 핵심 지휘관들의 협상과 회담이 [228]열렸는데, 그 때 모호한 약속만 이루어졌을 뿐이다.크로스 미디어 비난은 흔했다.

9월 5일 러시아 모스크바에서 라즈나트 싱 인도 국방장관과 웨이펑허 중국 육군장성 간 회담까지 열렸지만 역시 [229]성공하지 못했다.최근 열린 4개국 회의에서도 [230]중국은 의문을 제기했지만 인도는 [231]이를 거부했다.

2021년 1월 중순, 양국은 마침내 각자의 입장에서 축소에 합의했다고 보고되었다.중국군이 텐트나 바락을 철거하는 장면이 여러 장 공개되었다.양국은 또한 인도가 핑거3로 복귀하는 것에 동의했고, 중국은 핑거8로 복귀하며 핑거3부터 핑거8까지를 "무인의 땅"[232]으로 선포했다.

두 척의 일본 해군 군함이 인도 서부 해안에서 열린 말라바르 2007에 참가했는데, 이는 일본이 인도와 일본 사이의 긴밀한 군사 협력을 상징하기 위해 참가한 몇 안 되는 다자 훈련 중 하나이다.

인도와 일본의 관계는 항상 견고했다.인도는 불교를 통해 일본에 문화적으로 영향을 끼쳤다.제2차 세계대전일본 제국군은 네타지 수바시 찬드라 보스의 인도 국민군도왔다.1998년 포크란 2호 핵실험 이후 일본이 인도에 제재를 가했음에도 불구하고 인도 독립 이후 양국 관계는 여전히 우호적이다.

스탬프 오브 인디아 - 2002 - Colnect 834423 - India Japan 50주년 외교관계

[233] 소니, 도요타, 혼다 등 일본 기업은 인도에 제조 시설을 가지고 있으며, 인도 경제의 성장과 함께 인도는 일본 기업에 큰 시장이 되고 있다.인도에 큰 투자를 하고 있는 가장 유명한 일본 기업은 인도 최대의 자동차 메이커인 마루티 스즈키와 제휴하고 있는 자동차 대기업 스즈키입니다.혼다는 세계 최대 오토바이 판매 업체 중 하나인 '히어로 혼다'(2011년 분할[234])의 파트너이기도 했다.

아베 신조(安倍晋三) 전 총리, 모디

아베 신조(安倍晋三) 총리의 자유호 이론에 따르면, 중국과의 관계는 냉랭한 채 세계 최대의 민주주의 국가인 인도와의 관계를 더욱 긴밀히 발전시키는 것이 일본의 이익에 부합한다.이를 위해 일본은 인도, 특히 뉴델리 지하철의 [235]많은 인프라 프로젝트에 자금을 지원해왔다.2006년 12월 만모한 싱 당시 총리의 방일은 '일본-인도 전략·글로벌 파트너십 공동성명'에 서명함으로써 절정에 달했다.2006년 1명, 2007년 41명 등 인도 지원자들은 JET 프로그램에 참여하게 됐다.또한 2007년, 일본 자위대는 말라바르 2007으로 알려진 인도양에서 열린 해상 훈련에 참가했는데, 이 훈련에는 인도, 호주, 싱가포르, 미국의 해군도 참여했다.

2008년 10월, 일본은 인도와 델리-뭄바이 간 고속철도 건설을 위한 45억달러의 저금리 대출을 승인하는 협정을 체결했다.이는 일본이 자금을 대는 단일 최대 규모의 해외 프로젝트이며,[236] 두 나라 간의 경제 협력 관계가 확대되고 있음을 반영하고 있다.인도와 일본은 군사훈련과 인도양 경찰, 테러와의 전쟁에 대한 군사교류를 실시하는 안보협력협정에[237] 서명했다. 인도는 일본이 안보협정을 [238]맺고 있는 미국과 호주 등 3개 국가 중 하나다.2008년 현재 일본에는 25,000명의 인도인이 있다.

몽골

인도와 몽골의 관계는 아직 초기 단계이며 인도-몽골 협력은 외교 방문, 연성 차관 제공 및 금융 지원, IT 분야에서의 협력에 한정되어 있다.

인도는 1955년 12월에 외교 관계를 수립했다.인도는 몽골과 수교한 첫 번째 소련 블록 밖 국가였다.그 이후 1973년, 1994년, 2001년, 2004년 양국 간에 상호 우호 및 협력 조약이 체결되었다.

북한

인도와 북한은 무역과 외교 관계가 발전하고 있다.인도는 평양에 완전한 기능을 하는 대사관을 가지고 있었는데, 북한여전히 뉴델리에 대사관을 운영하고 있는 반면, 주최국COVID-19 대유행으로 문을 닫았다.인도는 한국의 "[239]통일"을 원한다고 말했다.

대한민국.
슈리 나렌드라 모디 국무총리와 문재인 대한민국 대통령이 델리 메트로를 타고 우타르 프라데시 주 노이다에 있는 세계 최대 모바일 공장인 삼성 제조 공장을 준공하고 있다.
인도 우표 - 2019 - 수로왕후, 즉 허공주가 아요디아 왕국에서 한국으로 온 것을 기념하는 한국과 공동 발행.

양국의 우호적인 관계는 수로왕후 또는 허공주가 아요디아 왕국에서 [240]한국으로 여행했던 서기 48년으로 거슬러 올라간다.삼국유사에 따르면, 공주는 하늘의 기름부은 승마를 기다리는 천왕에 대한 꿈을 꿨다.허공주는 그 꿈을 꾸고 나서 자신의 부모인 왕과 왕비에게 그 남자를 찾아가도록 허락해 달라고 요청했고, 왕과 왕비는 신이 [241]모든 운명을 조종했다고 믿고 그를 설득했다.허락을 받은 후, 그녀는 금, 은, 차, 그리고 [240]물을 가라앉히는 돌을 들고 배를 타고 출발했다.고고학자들은 인도 아요디야에서 미슈라 왕가의 독특한 가야 왕국의 상징인 물고기 두 마리가 입맞추고 있는 돌을 발견했다.이 왕실의 연결고리는 여왕이 [240]한국에 도착한 이후 인도와 한국 사이에 활발한 상업적 거래가 있었다는 증거를 더 제공한다.현재의 후손들은 해외뿐만 아니라 김해시와 미국 뉴저지주와 켄터키주에 살고 있다.그들 중 많은 이들김대중 대통령, 김종필 국무총리처럼 세계적으로 유명해지고 유명해졌다. 김대중30년 동안 많은 발전이 있었지만, 두 나라 사이의 관계는 상대적으로 제한적이었다.1973년 양국 수교 이후 몇 가지 무역협정이 체결되었다.양국 간 무역은 1992-1993 회계연도 5억 3천만 달러, 2006-2007 [242]회계연도 100억 달러로 기하급수적으로 증가했다.1997년 아시아 외환위기 때 한국 기업들은 세계 시장으로의 접근성을 높이기 위해 노력했고 [242]인도와의 무역 투자를 시작했다.지난 두 번의 한국 대통령 인도 방문은 1996년과 [243]2006년이었고 양국 대사관 업무는 [244]개선이 필요한 것으로 보인다.최근 한국 대중과 정치권에서는 인도와의 관계 확대가 한국의 경제적, 정치적 우선순위가 되어야 한다는 인식이 대두되고 있다.한국의 경제 투자의 상당 부분이 [245]중국으로 빠져나갔지만,[246] 현재 한국은 인도에 대한 다섯 번째 투자처이다.타임즈 오브 인디아에서 노무현 대통령은 인도의 소프트웨어와 한국의 IT 산업 간의 협력이 매우 효율적이고 성공적인 [243]결과를 가져올 것이라고 목소리를 높였다. 노무현양국은 양국 간 추가 투자를 장려하기 위해 양국 간 비자 정책 수정, 무역 확대, 자유무역협정(FTA) 체결로 초점을 옮기기로 합의했다.LG, 현대, 삼성한국 기업들은 인도에 제조 및 서비스 시설을 설립했으며, 몇몇 한국 건설사들은 "국도 개발 프로젝트"[246]와 같은 인도의 많은 인프라 건설 계획 중 일부에 대한 보조금을 받았다.타타자동차가 1억200만 달러를 들여 대우상용차를 사들인 것은 대부분 [246]하도급으로 구성된 한국에 대한 인도의 투자가 돋보인다.

남쪽

아프가니스탄
인도 수상 Narrendra Modi, 아프가니스탄 대통령 Ashraf Ghani 뉴델리에서 개최(2018년)

인도와 아프가니스탄의 양국 관계는 전통적으로 강하고 우호적이었다.인도는 1980년대 소련의 지원을 받는 아프가니스탄 민주공화국을 인정한 유일한 남아시아 국가였지만 1990년대 [247]아프가니스탄 내전이슬람 탈레반의 통치로 관계가 악화됐다.인도는 탈레반의 전복을 도왔고 인도주의 및 재건 [61][248]지원의 가장 큰 지역 제공자가 되었다.새로 민주적으로 선출된 아프간 정부는 [61][248]탈레반의 은신처와 지원을 계속하고 있는 파키스탄과의 긴장과 문제가 지속되자 인도와의 관계를 강화했다.인도는 카슈미르와 인도의 [61]다른 지역에서 이슬람 무장세력을 지원하고 있는 파키스탄을 봉쇄하고 지역 강국으로서의 입지를 강화하기 위해 긴밀한 협력 정책을 추진하고 있다.인도는 아프가니스탄에서 가장 큰 지역 투자국으로 재건 [249]목적으로 30억 달러 이상을 투자했다.인도는 아프가니스탄 이슬람공화국이 붕괴된 뒤 비무슬림 소수민족 대피에 참여해 탈레반이 통치하는 아프가니스탄에 [250]식량 지원을 아끼지 않았다.

방글라데시
모디 총리는 셰이크 하시나 방글라데시 총리, 마마타 바네르지 서벵골총리함께 인도 및 방글라데시 정부, 외무부 장관(인도), S. 자이산카르 및 방글라데시 정부 관리와의 합의에 합의했다.

인도는 1971년 12월 6일 방글라데시를 독립 국가로 인정한 두 번째 국가였다.인도는 1971년 방글라데시를 서파키스탄으로부터 해방시키기 위해 방글라데시와 함께 싸웠다.

방글라데시와 인도와의 관계는 1976년 이후 국경 살상, 관개, 국경 분쟁 등에서 어려움을 겪어왔다.그러나 인도는 1972년과 1996년 아와미 동맹에 의해 결성된 정부 기간 동안 방글라데시와 우호적인 관계를 유지해왔다.최근 육상 및 해양 분쟁의 해결은 유대관계에 있는 자극적인 요소들을 제거했다.

니아지 중장은 오로라 중장이 지켜보는 가운데 항복문서에 서명함으로써 방글라데시 해방전쟁을 사실상 종식시키고 방글라데시를 새로운 국가로 만들었다.

1971년 파키스탄에 대한 인도의 무조건적인 독립 지지와 반대 때문에 방글라데시와의 관계가 더 강해질 수 없었을 것이다.독립 전쟁 동안, 많은 난민들이 인도로 도망쳤다.1971년 11월 저항 투쟁이 성숙했을 때, 인도도 군사적으로 개입했고, 인디라 간디의 워싱턴 D.C. 방문을 통해 이 문제에 대한 국제적인 관심을 끌어내는 데 도움을 줬을후 인도는 구호와 재건 지원을 제공했다.인도는 1971년 부탄에 이어[251] 두 번째로 방글라데시를 인정했고, 그 후 다른 나라들에게도 이를 따르도록 로비를 벌였다.인도도 1972년 [citation needed]방글라데시 방문 당시 셰이크 무지부르 라만이 인도 간디에게 군 철수를 요청하자 방글라데시 영토에서 군대를 철수시켰다.

인도의 우표 - 1973 - 깃발을 단 꽃 - 방글라데시 공화국의 창설을 기념하는 인도.

인도-방글라스의 관계는 1975년 [252]8월 무지브 정부가 몰락한 이후 다소 덜 우호적이었다.남탈파티 섬, 틴 비가 회랑, 네팔로의 접근, 파라카 보와 물 공유, 트리푸라 인근의 국경 분쟁, 그리고 인도가 이민자, 저항세력, 테러리스트에 대한 안보 제공으로 설명하는 국경 대부분에 울타리를 건설하는 등의 문제로 수 년 동안 지속되었다.많은 방글라데시인들은 인도가 방글라데시를 포함한 작은 이웃들에게 "큰형님" 역할을 하고 싶어한다고 느끼고 있다.1996년 인도 외교정책과 새로운 아와미 연맹 정부로 양국 관계는 따뜻해졌다.갠지스강에 대한 30년간의 물 공유 협정은 1988년 갠지스강에 대한 이전의 양국 간 물 공유 협정이 파기된 후 1996년 12월에 체결되었다.양국은 홍수 경보와 대비 문제에도 협력해 왔다.방글라데시 정부와 부족 반군은 1997년 12월 평화협정에 서명했다.이 협정은 1986년부터 인도로 피신한 부족 난민들이 치타공 구릉 지역에서 발생한 폭동으로 인한 폭력에서 벗어나도록 허용했다.방글라데시 군대는 오늘날까지 이 지역에 매우 강력한 주둔을 유지하고 있다. 당국은 불법 마약의 재배에 대한 우려가 커지고 있다.

There are also small pieces of land along the border region that Bangladesh is diplomatically trying to reclaim. Padua, part of Sylhet Division before 1971, has been under Indian control since the war in 1971. This small strip of land was re-occupied by the BDR in 2001, but later given back to India after Bangladesh government decided to solve the problem through diplomatic negotiations. The Indian New Moore island no longer exists, but Bangladesh repeatedly claims it[253] to be part of the Satkhira district of Bangladesh.

In recent years India has increasingly complained that Bangladesh does not secure its border properly. It fears an increasing flow of poor Bangladeshis and it accuses Bangladesh of harbouring Indian separatist groups like ULFA and alleged terrorist groups. The Bangladesh government has refused to accept these allegations.[254][255] India estimates that over 20 million Bangladeshis are living illegally in India.[256] One Bangladeshi official responded that "there is not a single Bangladeshi migrant in India".[257] Since 2002, India has been constructing an India – Bangladesh Fence along much of the 2500 mile border.[258] The failure to resolve migration disputes bears a human cost for illegal migrants, such as imprisonment and health risks (namely HIV/AIDS).[259]

India's prime minister Narendra Modi and his Bangladeshi counterpart Sheikh Hasina have completed a landmark deal redrawing their messy shared border and there by solving disputes between India and Bangladesh. Bangladesh has also given India transit route to travel through Bangladesh to its North East states. India and Bangladesh also have free trade agreement on 7 June 2015.[260]

Both countries solved its border dispute on 6 June 2015.[261]

To connect Kolkata with Tripura via Bangladesh through railway, the Union Government on 10 February 2016 sanctioned about 580 crore rupees. The project that is expected to be completed by 2017 will pass through Bangladesh.

The Agartala-Akhaura rail-link between Indian Railway and Bangladesh Railway will reduce the current 1700 km road distance between Kolkata to Agartala via Siliguri to just 350-kilometer by railway.

The project ranks high on Prime Minister's 'Act East Policy', and is expected to increase connectivity and boost trade between India and Bangladesh.

Bhutan

Historically, there have been close ties with India. Both countries signed a friendship treaty in 1949, where India would assist Bhutan in foreign relations. On 8 February 2007, the Indo-Bhutan Friendship Treaty was substantially revised under the Bhutanese King, Jigme Khesar Namgyel Wangchuck. Whereas in the Treaty of 1949 Article 2 read as "The Government of India undertakes to exercise no interference in the internal administration of Bhutan. On its part the Government of Bhutan agrees to be guided by the advice of the Government of India in regard to its external relations."

In the revised treaty it now reads as, "In keeping with the abiding ties of close friendship and cooperation between Bhutan and India, the Government of the Kingdom of Bhutan and the Government of the Republic of India shall cooperate closely with each other on issues relating to their national interests. Neither government shall allow the use of its territory for activities harmful to the national security and interest of the other". The revised treaty also includes in it the preamble "Reaffirming their respect for each other's independence, sovereignty and territorial integrity", an element that was absent in the earlier version. The Indo-Bhutan Friendship Treaty of 2007 strengthens Bhutan's status as an independent and sovereign nation.

India continues to be the largest trade and development partner of Bhutan. Planned development efforts in Bhutan began in the early 1960s. The First Five Year Plan (FYP) of Bhutan was launched in 1961. Since then, India has been extending financial assistance to Bhutan's FYPs. The 10th FYP ended in June 2013. India's overall assistance to the 10th FYP was a little over Rs. 5000 crores, excluding grants for hydropower projects. India has committed Rs. 4500 crores for Bhutan's 11th FYP along with Rs. 500 crores as an Economic Stimulus Package.[262]

The hydropower sector is one of the main pillars of bilateral co-operation, exemplifying mutually beneficial synergy by providing clean energy to India and exports revenue to Bhutan (power contributes 14% to the Bhutanese GDP, comprising about 35% of Bhutan's total exports). Three hydroelectric projects (HEPs) totaling 1416 MW, (336 MW Chukha HEP, the 60 MW Kurichu HEP, and the 1020 MW Tala HEP), are already exporting electricity to India. In 2008 the two governments identified ten more projects for development with a total generation capacity of 10,000 MW. Of these, three projects totaling 2940 MW (1200 MW Punatsangchu-I, 1020 MW Punatsangchu-II and 720 MW Mangdechu HEPs) are under construction and are scheduled to be commissioned in the last quarter of 2017–2018. Out of the remaining 7 HEPs, 4 projects totaling 2120 MW (600 MW Kholongchhu, 180 MW Bunakha, 570 MW Wangchu and 770 MW Chamkarchu) will be constructed under Joint Venture model, for which a Framework Inter-Governmental Agreement was signed between both governments in 2014. Of these 4 JV-model projects, pre-construction activities for Kholongchhu HEP have commenced.[262] Tata Power is also building a hydro-electric dam in Bhutan.

India had assisted Bhutan by deploying its troops in Doklam in 2017- a territory claimed and controlled under Bhutanese government- to resist a Chinese army's control and construction of military structures.[218]

Maldives
PM Narendra Modi meeting President of Maldives, Ibrahim Mohamed Solih, in Malé(2018)

India enjoys a considerable influence over Maldives' foreign policy and provides extensive security co-operation especially after the Operation Cactus in 1988 during which India repelled Tamil mercenaries who invaded the country.

As a founder member in 1985 of the South Asian Association for Regional Cooperation, SAARC, which brings together Afghanistan, Bangladesh, Bhutan, India, Maldives, Nepal, Pakistan and Sri Lanka, the country plays a very active role in SAARC. The Maldives has taken the lead in calling for a South Asian Free Trade Agreement, the formulation of a Social Charter, the initiation of informal political consultations in SAARC forums, the lobbying for greater action on environmental issues, the proposal of numerous human rights measures such as the regional convention on child rights and for setting up a SAARC Human Rights Resource Centre. The Maldives is also an advocate of greater international profile for SAARC such as through formulating common positions at the UN.

India is starting the process to bring the island country into India's security grid. The move comes after the moderate Islamic nation approached New Delhi earlier this year over fears that one of its island resorts could be taken over by terrorists given its lack of military assets and surveillance capabilities.[263] India also signed an agreement with the Maldives in 2011 which is centred around the following:

  • India shall permanently base two helicopters in the country to enhance its surveillance capabilities and ability to respond swiftly to threats. One helicopter from the Coast Guard was handed over during A. K. Antony's visit while another from the Navy will be cleared for transfer shortly.
  • Maldives has coastal radars on only two of its 26 atolls. India will help set up radars on all 26 for seamless coverage of approaching vessels and aircraft.
  • The coastal radar chain in Maldives will be networked with the Indian coastal radar system. India has already undertaken a project to install radars along its entire coastline. The radar chains of the two countries will be interlinked and a central control room in India's Coastal Command will get a seamless radar picture.
  • The Indian Coast Guard (ICG) will carry out regular Dornier sorties over the island nation to look out for suspicious movements or vessels. The Southern Naval Command will facilitate the inclusion of Maldives into the Indian security grid.
  • Military teams from Maldives will visit the tri-services Andaman & Nicobar Command (ANC) to observe how India manages security and surveillance of the critical island chain.
Nepal
PMNarendra Modi, with Former Prime Minister of Nepal, KP Sharma Oli, in BIMSTEC Summit 2018 at Kathmandu.

Relations between India and Nepal are close yet fraught with difficulties stemming from border disputes, geography, economics, the problems inherent in big power-small power relations, and common ethnic and linguistic identities that overlap the two countries' borders. In 1950 New Delhi and Kathmandu initiated their intertwined relationship with the Treaty of Peace and Friendship and accompanying secret letters that defined security relations between the two countries, and an agreement governing both bilateral trade and trade transiting Indian soil. The 1950 treaty and letters stated that "neither government shall tolerate any threat to the security of the other by a foreign aggressor" and obligated both sides "to inform each other of any serious friction or misunderstanding with any neighboring state likely to cause any breach in the friendly relations subsisting between the two governments", and also granted the Indian and Nepali citizens right to get involved in any economic activity such as work and business related activity in each other's territory. These accords cemented a "special relationship" between India and Nepal that granted Nepalese in India the same economic and educational opportunities as Indian citizens.

Relations between India and Nepal reached its lowest during 1989 when India imposed a 13-month-long economic blockade of Nepal. Indian PM Narendra Modi visited Nepal in 2014, the first by an Indian PM in nearly 17 years.

In 2015, a blockade of the India-Nepal border has affected relations. The blockade is led by ethnic communities angered by Nepal's recently promulgated new constitution.[264] However, the Nepalese government accuses India of deliberately worsening the embargo, but India denies it.[264]

India had aided Nepal during 2015 Kathmandu earthquake with financial aid of $1 billion, and launching Operation Maitri.[265]

Local Nepalese and Army persons being evacuated by Indian Air Force (IAF) Mi-17 V5 helicopter of directions of Nepalese authority as part of relief & rescue operations following 2015 Kathmandu Earthquake.

The relations were strained during mid 2020, when it was reported that a firing took place by the Nepalese police across Indo-Nepalese border of Bihar on 12 July.[266] Nepalese Prime Minister KP Sharma Oli commented about the pandemic of Coronavirus that "Indian virus was more deadlier" than the one which spread from Wuhan.[267] As the time progressed, certain claims were also made on the Indian territories, for example, Kalapani, Limpiyadhura and Lipulekh of Uttarakhand.[268] Similarly, the claims were also made culturally, when it was said that Hindu God Ram was Nepalese, that he was born in Thori, west of Birgunj, and that Ayodhya in Uttar Pradesh was fake.[269] Rules were made strict for Indians in Nepal[270] along with banning some Indian media.[271] Indian media stated that the actions of Oli government were souring the relations, "and these were being done on the direction of China and propelled by Chinese ambassador Hou Yanqi". Speculations were made that since China could not handle India directly, in aftermath of the LAC skirmish, it was lurking and trapping its neighboring countries and provoking them against India. In August, there were reports about the Chinese "illegal occupations" on Nepal's border states' areas.[272]

Pakistan
Jawahar Lal Nehru and Muhammed Ali Jinnah walking in the grounds of Government House, Simla, British India.[208]

Despite historical, cultural and ethnic links between them, relations between India and Pakistan have been "plagued" by years of mistrust and suspicion ever since the partition of India in 1947. The principal source of contention between India and its western neighbour has been the Kashmir conflict. After an invasion by Pashtun tribesmen and Pakistani paramilitary forces, the Hindu Maharaja of the Dogra Kingdom of Jammu and Kashmir, Hari Singh, and its Muslim Prime Minister, Sheikh Abdullah, signed an Instrument of Accession with New Delhi. The First Kashmir War started after the Indian Army entered Srinagar, the capital of the state, to secure the area from the invading forces. The war ended in December 1948 with the Line of Control dividing the erstwhile princely state into territories administered by Pakistan (northern and western areas) and India (southern, central and northeastern areas). Pakistan contested the legality of the Instrument of Accession since the Dogra Kingdom has signed a standstill agreement with it. The Indo-Pakistani War of 1965 started following the failure of Pakistan's Operation Gibraltar, which was designed to infiltrate forces into Jammu and Kashmir to precipitate an insurgency against rule by India. The five-week war caused thousands of casualties on both sides. It ended in a United Nations (UN) mandated ceasefire and the subsequent issuance of the Tashkent Declaration. India and Pakistan went to war again in 1971, this time the conflict being over East Pakistan. The large-scale atrocities committed there by the Pakistan army led to millions of Bengali refugees pouring over into India. India, along with the Mukti Bahini, defeated Pakistan and the Pakistani forces surrendered on the eastern front. The war resulted in the creation of Bangladesh. In 1998, India carried out the Pokhran-II nuclear tests which was followed by Pakistan's Chagai-I tests. Following the Lahore Declaration in February 1999, relations briefly improved. A few months later, however, Pakistani paramilitary forces and Pakistan Army, infiltrated in large numbers into the Kargil district of Indian Kashmir. This initiated the Kargil War after India moved in thousands of troops to successfully flush out the infiltrators. Although the conflict did not result in a full-scale war between India and Pakistan, relations between the two reached all-time low which worsened even further following the involvement of Pakistan-based terrorists in the hijacking of the Indian Airlines Flight 814 in December 1999. Attempts to normalise relations, such as the Agra summit held in July 2001, failed. An attack on the Indian Parliament in December 2001, which was blamed on Pakistan, which had condemned the attack[273] caused a military standoff between the two countries which lasted for nearly a year raising fears of a nuclear warfare. However, a peace process, initiated in 2003, led to improved relations in the following years.

Since the initiation of the peace process, several confidence-building-measures (CBMs) between India and Pakistan have taken shape. The Samjhauta Express and Delhi–Lahore Bus service are two of these successful measures which have played a crucial role in expanding people-to-people contact between the two countries.[274] The initiation of Srinagar–Muzaffarabad Bus service in 2005 and opening of a historic trade route across the Line of Control in 2008 further reflects increasing eagerness between the two sides to improve relations. Although bilateral trade between India and Pakistan was a modest US$1.7 billion in March 2007, it is expected to cross US$10 billion by 2010. After the 2005 Kashmir earthquake, India sent aid to affected areas in Pakistani Kashmir and Punjab as well as Indian Kashmir.[275]

The 2008 Mumbai attacks seriously undermined the relations between the two countries. India alleged Pakistan of harbouring militants on their soil, while Pakistan vehemently denied such claims.

A new chapter started in India Pakistan relation when a new NDA government took charge in Delhi after victory in 2014 election and invited SAARC members' leaders in oath taking ceremony. Subsequently, visit of Indian Prime Minister on 25 December informally to wish Pakistani Prime minister Nawaz Sharif on his Birth Day and participate in his daughter's wedding. It was hoped that the relation between the neighbour will improve but attack on Indian army camp by Pakistani infiltrators on 18 September 2016[276] and subsequent surgical strike by India[277] aggravated the already strained relation between the nations.

PMNarendra Modi meeting Former Prime Minister of Pakistan, Nawaz Sharif, at Raiwind, Pakistan
(2015, last formal dialogue)

A SAARC summit scheduled in Islamabad was called off because of after boycott by India and other SAARC member's subsequently.[278]

The relation took a further nosedive after another attack on CRPF in February 2019 by a terrorist associated with the Pakistan-based terror organisation, Jaish-e-Mohammed, when the terrorist rammed his vehicle packed with explosive against a bus carrying CRPF soldiers in Pulwama, Kashmir, killing 40.[279] India blamed Pakistan which was denied by the Pakistani establishment. India retaliated with an airstrike on Balakot, a region claimed and controlled by Pakistan.[280]

A new chapter in peace was ignited, when it was suddenly declared that a back-door peace settlement over ceasing the cross-border firing across LOC was signed between the armies of both sides, and a steady growth in the countries' coming together was observed.[281]

Sri Lanka

Bilateral relations between Sri Lanka and India has enjoyed historically a good relationship. The two countries share near-identical racial and cultural ties. According to traditional Sri Lankan chronicles (Dipavamsa), Buddhism was introduced into Sri Lanka in the 4th century BCE by Venerable Mahinda, the son of Indian Emperor Ashoka, during the reign of Sri Lanka's King Devanampiya Tissa. During this time, a sapling of the Bodhi Tree was brought to Sri Lanka and the first monasteries and Buddhist monuments were established.

The Former President of Sri Lanka, at Prime Minister's Residence, New Delhi with PM Narendra Modi(2018)

Nevertheless, relation post independence were affected by the Sri Lankan Civil War and by the failure of Indian intervention during the civil war as well as India's support for Tamil Tiger militants. India is Sri Lanka's only neighbour, separated by the Palk Strait; both nations occupy a strategic position in South Asia and have sought to build a common security umbrella in the Indian Ocean.[282]

India-Sri Lanka relations have undergone a qualitative and quantitative transformation in the recent past. Political relations are close, trade and investments have increased dramatically, infrastructural linkages are constantly being augmented, defence collaboration has increased and there is a general, broad-based improvement across all sectors of bilateral co-operation. India was the first country to respond to Sri Lanka's request for assistance after the tsunami in December 2004. In July 2006, India evacuated 430 Sri Lankan nationals from Lebanon, first to Cyprus by Indian Navy ships and then to Delhi and Colombo by special Air India flights.

There exists a broad consensus within the Sri Lankan polity on the primacy of India in Sri Lanka's external relations matrix. Both the major political parties in Sri Lanka, the Sri Lanka Freedom Party and the United Nationalist Party have contributed to the rapid development of bilateral relations in the last ten years. Sri Lanka has supported India's candidature to the permanent membership of the UN Security Council.[283]

India and its neighbor countries.
SAARC

Certain aspects of India's relations within the subcontinent are conducted through the South Asian Association for Regional Cooperation (SAARC). Its members other than India are Afghanistan, Bangladesh, Bhutan, Maldives, Nepal, Pakistan and Sri Lanka. Established in 1985, SAARC encourages co-operation in agriculture, rural development, science and technology, culture, health, population control, narcotics control and anti-terrorism.

SAARC has intentionally stressed these "core issues" and avoided more divisive political issues, although political dialogue is often conducted on the margins of SAARC meetings. In 1993, India and its SAARC partners signed an agreement to gradually lower tariffs within the region. Forward movement in SAARC has come to a standstill because of the tension between India and Pakistan, and the SAARC Summit originally scheduled for, but not held in, November 1999 has not been rescheduled. The Fourteenth SAARC Summit was held during 3–4 April 2007 in New Delhi. The 19th SAARC summit that was scheduled to be held in Islamabad was cancelled due to terrorist acts particularly Uri attack.

Members of BIMSTEC.
BIMSTEC

Bay of Bengal Initiative for Multi-Sectoral Technical and Economic Cooperation is now an "organization of member states" that are littorals of the Bay of Bengal or adjacent to it. The BIMSTEC member states – Bangladesh, Bhutan, India, Myanmar, Nepal, Sri Lanka, and Thailand – are among the major South and Southeast Asia countries dependent on the Bay of Bengal.[284] India and some other countries, frustrated by the obstacles in SAARC's efforts to promote regional cooperation, have been working to make BIMSTEC the premier vehicle in this regard.[285]

Southeast

Brunei

Brunei has a high commission in New Delhi, and India has a high commission in Bandar Seri Begawan. Both countries are full members of the Commonwealth of Nations.

Cambodia

Both nations have been in friendly relations.

Indonesia

The ties between Indonesia and India date back to the times of the Ramayana,[286] "Yawadvipa" (Java) is mentioned in India's earliest epic, the Ramayana. Sugriva, the chief of Rama's army dispatched his men to Yawadvipa, the island of Java, in search of Sita.[287] Indonesians had absorbed many aspects of Indian culture since almost two millennia ago. The most obvious trace is the large adoption of Sanskrit into Indonesian language. Several of Indonesian toponymy has Indian parallel or origin, such as Madura with Mathura, Serayu and Sarayu rivers, Kalingga from Kalinga Kingdom, and Ngayogyakarta from Ayodhya. Indianised HinduBuddhist kingdoms, such as Kalingga, Srivijaya, Medang i Bhumi Mataram, Sunda, Kadiri, Singhasari and Majapahit were the predominant governments in Indonesia, and lasted from 200[288] to the 1500s, with the last remaining being in Bali. The example of profound Hindu-Buddhist influences in Indonesian history are the 9th century Prambanan and Borobudur temples.

PM Narendra Modi meets Indonesian President Joko Widodo, in Jakarta (2018)

In 1950, the first President of Indonesia – Sukarno called upon the peoples of Indonesia and India to "intensify the cordial relations" that had existed between the two countries "for more than 1000 years" before they had been "disrupted" by colonial powers.[289] In the spring of 1966, the foreign ministers of both countries began speaking again of an era of friendly relations. India had supported Indonesian independence and Nehru had raised the Indonesian question in the United Nations Security Council.

India has an embassy in Jakarta[290] and Indonesia operates an embassy in Delhi.[291] India regards Indonesia as a key member of ASEAN. Today, both countries maintain cooperative and friendly relations. India and Indonesia is one of the few (and also one of the largest) democracies in Asian region which can be projected as a real democracy.[292][better source needed] Both nations had agreed to establish a strategic partnership.[293] As fellow Asian democracies that share common values, it is natural for both countries to nurture and foster strategic alliance. Indonesia and India are member states of the G-20, the E7, the Non-Aligned Movement, and the United Nations.

Laos

In recent years, India has endeavoured to build relations, with this small Southeast Asian nation. They have strong military relations, and India shall be building an Airforce Academy in Laos.[294]

Malaysia
Stamp of India - IOCOM Submarine Telephone Cable

India has a high commission in Kuala Lumpur, and Malaysia has a high commission in New Delhi. Both countries are full members of the Commonwealth of Nations and the Asian Union. India and Malaysia are also connected by various cultural and historical ties that date back to antiquity. The two countries are on friendly terms with each other and Malaysia harbours a small population of Indian immigrants. Mahathir bin Mohamad the fourth and longest serving Prime Minister of Malaysia is of Indian origin. His father Mohamad Iskandar, is a Malayalee Muslim who migrated from Kerala and his mother Wan Tampawan, is a Malay.[295]

Relations were escalated, when the Malaysian PM Mahathir Mohamad questioned the action of revocating the special status of Jammu and Kashmir, and on CAA-NRC protests. The relations continue to be diminished, also during the palm oil export from Malaysia to India.

Even with the new government in power, currently, there seems no recovery, as former Prime Minister Mahathir Mohamad still favored Pakistan.[296]

Myanmar
The Prime Minister, Shri Narendra Modi and the State Counsellor of Myanmar, Ms. Aung San Suu Kyi at the Joint Press Statement, at Hyderabad House, in New Delhi on 19 October 2016.

India established diplomatic relations after Burma's independence from Great Britain in 1948. For many years, Indo-Burmese relations were strong due to cultural links, flourishing commerce, common interests in regional affairs and the presence of a significant Indian community in Burma.[297] India provided considerable support when Myanmar struggled with regional insurgencies. However, the overthrow of the democratic government by the Military of Burma led to strains in ties. Along with much of the world, India condemned the suppression of democracy and Myanmar ordered the expulsion of the Burmese Indian community, increasing its own isolation from the world.[297][298] Only China maintained close links with Myanmar while India supported the pro-democracy movement.[297][299][300]

However, due to geo-political concerns, India revived its relations and recognised the military junta ruling Myanmar in 1993, overcoming strains over drug trafficking, the suppression of democracy and the rule of the military junta in Myanmar. Myanmar is situated to the south of the states of Mizoram, Manipur, Nagaland and Arunachal Pradesh in Northeast India. and the proximity of the People's Republic of China gives strategic importance to Indo-Burmese relations. The Indo-Burmese border stretches over 1,600 kilometres[301] and some insurgents in North-east India seek refuge in Myanmar. Consequently, India has been keen on increasing military co-operation with Myanmar in its counter-insurgency activities. In 2001, the Indian Army completed the construction of a major road along its border with Myanmar. India has also been building major roads, highways, ports and pipelines within Myanmar in an attempt to increase its strategic influence in the region and also to counter China's growing strides in the Indochina peninsula. Indian companies have also sought active participation in oil and natural gas exploration in Myanmar. In February 2007, India announced a plan to develop the Sittwe port, which would enable ocean access from Indian Northeastern states like Mizoram, via the Kaladan River.

India is a major customer of Burmese oil and gas. In 2007, Indian exports to Myanmar totalled US$185 million, while its imports from Myanmar were valued at around US$810 million, consisting mostly of oil and gas.[302] India has granted US$100 million credit to fund highway infrastructure projects in Myanmar, while US$57 million has been offered to upgrade Burmese railways. A further US$27 million in grants has been pledged for road and rail projects.[303] India is one of the few countries that has provided military assistance to the Burmese junta.[304] However, there has been increasing pressure on India to cut some of its military supplies to Burma.[305] Relations between the two remain close which was evident in the aftermath of Cyclone Nargis, when India was one of the few countries whose relief and rescue aid proposals were accepted by Myanmar's ruling junta.[306]

India maintain embassies in Rangoon and consulate-generals in Mandalay.

Philippines
Indian Prime Minister Narendra Modi and Philippines President Rodrigo Roa Duterte meeting in Manila, 2017

Through the Srivijaya and Majapahit empires, Hindu influence has been visible in Philippine history from the 10th to 14th centuries. During the 18th century, there was robust trade between Manila with the Coromandel Coast and Bengal, involving Philippine exports of tobacco, silk, cotton, indigo, sugar cane and coffee.

Stamp of Ganges River Dolphin (Platanista gangetica) and Whale Shark (Rhincodon typus), 2009, India-Philippines joint issue.

Formal diplomatic relations between Philippines and India were established on 16 November 1949. The first Philippine envoy to India was the late Foreign Secretary Narciso Ramos. Seven years after India's independence in 1947, the Philippines and India signed a Treaty of Friendship on 11 July 1952 in Manila to strengthen the friendly relations existing between the two countries. Soon after, the Philippine Legation in New Delhi was established and then elevated to an embassy. However, due to foreign policy differences as a result of the bipolar alliance structure of the Cold War, the development of bilateral relations was stunted. It was only in 1976 that relations started to normalise when Aditya Birla, one of India's successful industrialists, met with then President Ferdinand E. Marcos to explore possibilities of setting up joint ventures in the Philippines.

Today, like India, the Philippines is the leading voice-operated business process outsourcing (BPO) source in terms of revenue (US$5.7) and number of people (500,000) employed in the sector. In partnership with the Philippines, India has 20 IT/BPO companies in the Philippines. Philippines-India bilateral trade stood at US$986.60 million in 2009. In 2004 it was US$600 million. Both countries aim to reach US$1 billion by 2010. There are 60,000 Indians living in the Philippines. The Philippines and India signed in October 2007 the Framework for Bilateral Cooperation which created the PH-India JCBC. It has working groups in trade, agriculture, tourism, health, renewable energy and a regular policy consultation mechanism and security dialogue.

Singapore
Singapore Navy frigate RSS Formidable (68) steams alongside the Indian Navy frigate INS Brahmaputra (F-31) in the Bay of Bengal. Singapore is one of India's strongest allies in South East Asia.

India and Singapore share long-standing cultural, commercial and strategic relations, with Singapore being a part of the "Greater India" cultural and commercial region. More than 300,000 people of Indian Tamil "தமிழ்" origin live in Singapore. Following its independence in 1965, Singapore was concerned with China-backed communist threats as well as domination from Malaysia and Indonesia and sought a close strategic relationship with India, which it saw as a counterbalance to Chinese influence and a partner in achieving regional security.[307] Singapore had always been an important strategic trading post, giving India trade access to Maritime Southeast Asia and the Far East. Although the rival positions of both nations over the Vietnam War and the Cold War caused consternation between India and Singapore, their relationship expanded significantly in the 1990s;[307] Singapore was one of the first to respond to Indian Look East policy of expanding its economic, cultural and strategic ties in Southeast Asia to strengthen its standing as a regional power.[307] Singapore, and especially, the Singaporean Foreign Minister, George Yeo, have taken an interest, in re-establishing the ancient Indian university, Nalanda University.

India Singapore Joint Issue - 2015 - Commemorating relationship.

Singapore is the 8th largest source of investment in India and the largest amongst ASEAN member nations.[307][308] It is also India's 9th biggest trading partner as of 2005–06.[307] Its cumulative investment in India totals US$3 billion as of 2006 and is expected to rise to US 5 billion by 2010 and US 10 billion by 2015.[307][309][310] India's economic liberalisation and its "Look East" policy have led to a major expansion in bilateral trade, which grew from US$2.2 billion in 2001 to US 9–10 billion in 2006 – a 400% growth in span of five years – and to US$50 billion by 2010.[307][309][310] Singapore accounts for 38% of India's trade with ASEAN member nations and 3.4% of its total foreign trade.[307] India's main exports to Singapore in 2005 included petroleum, gemstones, jewellery, machinery and its imports from Singapore included electronic goods, organic chemicals and metals. More than half of Singapore's exports to India are basically "re-exports" – items that had been imported from India.[307][308]

Thailand
The mural of the Temple of the Emerald Buddha depicting Ninlaphat (Nila in Ramayana) a monkey soldier, serves as a bridge during an event in Ramakien ("Glory of Rama"), a Thai version of the Hindu epic Ramayana.

India's Indian Look East policy, saw India grow relations with ASEAN countries including Thailand, and Thailand's Look West policy, also saw it grow its relations with India. Both countries are members of BIMSTEC. Indian Prime Ministers Rajiv Gandhi, P.V. Narasimha Rao, Atal Bihari Vajpayee, and Manmohan Singh, have visited Thailand, which were reciprocated by contemporary Thai Prime Ministers Chatichai Choonhavan, Thaksin Sinawatra, and Surayud Chulanont. In 2003, a Free Trade Agreement was signed between the two countries. India, is the 13th largest investor in Thailand. The spheres of trade are in chemicals, pharmaceuticals, textiles, nylon, tyre cord, real estate, rayon fibres, paper grade pulps, steel wires, and rods. However, IT services, and manufacturing, are the main spheres. Through Buddhism, India, has culturally influenced Thailand. The Indian epics, Mahabharata, and Ramayana, are popular and are widely taught in schools as part of the curriculum in Thailand. The example can also be seen in temples around Thailand, where the story of Ramayana and renowned Indian folk stories are depicted on the temple wall. Thailand, has become a big tourist destination for Indians.

Moreover, India and Thailand have been culturally linked for centuries and India has had a deep influence on Thai culture. There are a substantial number of words in Thai that are borrowed from Sanskrit, India's classical language. Pali, which was the language of Magadha and is medium of Theravada, is another important root of Thai vocabulary. Buddhism, the major religion of Thailand, itself originates from India. The Hindu story of Ramayana is also well known throughout Thailand in the name Ramakien.

Timor-Leste

Both nations have friendly and collateral relations.

Vietnam
Indian Prime Minister Jawaharlal Nehru (left) and Vietnamese President Ho Chi Minh in Hanoi

India supported Vietnam's independence from France, opposed US involvement in the Vietnam War and supported unification of Vietnam. India established official diplomatic relations in 1972 and maintained friendly relations, especially in the wake of Vietnam's hostile relations with the People's Republic of China, which had become India's strategic rival.[311]

India granted the "Most favoured nation" status to Vietnam in 1975[311] and both nations signed a bilateral trade agreement in 1978 and the Bilateral Investment Promotion and Protection Agreement (BIPPA) on 8 March 1997.[312] In 2007, a fresh joint declaration was issued during the state visit of the Prime Minister of Vietnam Nguyen Tan Dung.[313] Bilateral trade has increased rapidly since the liberalisation of the economies of both Vietnam and India.[311] India is the 13th-largest exporter to Vietnam, with exports have grown steadily from US$11.5 million in 1985–86 to US$395.68 million by 2003.[312] Vietnam's exports to India rose to US$180 million, including agricultural products, handicrafts, textiles, electronics and other goods.[314] Between 2001 and 2006, the volume of bilateral trade expanded at 20–30% per annum to reach $1 billion by 2006.[315][316] Continuing the rapid pace of growth, bilateral trade is expected to rise to $2 billion by 2008, two years ahead of the official target.[316][317] India and Vietnam have also expanded co-operation in information technology, education and collaboration of the respective national space programmes.[313] Direct air links and lax visa regulations have been established to bolster tourism.[318]

India and Vietnam are members of the Mekong–Ganga Cooperation, created to develop to enhance close ties between India and nations of Southeast Asia. Vietnam has supported India's bid to become a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council and join the Indo-Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC).[319] In the 2003 joint declaration, India and Vietnam envisaged creating an "Arc of Advantage and Prosperity" in Southeast Asia;[313] to this end, Vietnam has backed a more important relationship and role between India and the Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN) and its negotiation of an Indo–ASEAN free trade agreement.[311][313] India and Vietnam have also built strategic partnerships, including extensive co-operation on developing nuclear power, enhancing regional security and fighting terrorism, transnational crime and drug trafficking.[320][313][314]

ASEAN

India's interaction with ASEAN during the Cold War was very limited. India declined to get associated with ASEAN in the 1960s when full membership was offered even before the grouping was formed.[44]

It is only with the formulation of the Look East policy in the last decade (1992), India had started giving this region due importance in the foreign policy. India became a sectoral dialogue partner with ASEAN in 1992, a full dialogue partner in 1995, a member of the ASEAN Regional Forum (ARF) in 1996, and a summit-level partner (on par with China, Japan and Korea) in 2002.

The first India–ASEAN Business Summit was held at New Delhi in October 2002. The then Prime Minister A. B. Vajpayee addressed this meet and since then this business summit has become an annual feature before the India–ASEAN Summits, as a forum for networking and exchange of business experiences between policy makers and business leaders from ASEAN and India.

Four India-ASEAN Summits, first in 2002 at Phnom Penh (Cambodia), second in 2003 at Bali, Indonesia, third in 2004 at Vientiane, Laos, and the fourth in 2005 at Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia, have taken place.

Stamp of India - ASEAN India Summit Delhi 2018 - Shared Heritage of Ramayana.

The following agreements have been entered into with ASEAN:

  • Framework Agreement on Comprehensive Economic Cooperation (for establishing a FTA in a time frame of 10 years) was concluded in Bali in 2003.
  • An ASEAN-India Joint Declaration for Cooperation to Combat International Terrorism has been adopted.
  • India has acceded to the Treaty of Amity and Cooperation (TAC) in 2003, on which ASEAN was formed initially (in 1967).
  • Agreement on "India-ASEAN Partnership for Peace, Progress and Shared Prosperity" was signed at the 3rd ASEAN-India Summit in November 2004.
  • Setting up of Entrepreneurship Development Centres in ASEAN member states – Cambodia, Burma, Laos, and Vietnam. (The one in Laos is already functional)

The following proposals were announced by the Prime Minister at the 4th ASEAN-India Summit:

  • Setting up centres for English Language Training (ELT) in Cambodia, Laos, Burma and Vietnam.
  • Setting up a tele-medicine and tele-education network for Cambodia, Burma, Laos and Vietnam.
  • Organising special training courses for diplomats from ASEAN countries.
  • Organising an India-ASEAN Technology Summit in 2006.
  • Organising education fairs and road shows in ASEAN countries.
  • Conducting an India-ASEAN IT Ministerial and Industry Forum in 2006.

The ASEAN region has an abundance of natural resources and significant technological skills. These provide a natural base for the integration between ASEAN and India in both trade and investment. The present level of bilateral trade with ASEAN of nearly US$18 billion is reportedly increasing by about 25% per year. India hopes to reach the level of US$30 billion by 2007. India is also improving its relations with the help of other policy decisions like offers of lines of credit, better connectivity through air (open skies policy), rail and road links.[44]

West

Armenia

India established diplomatic relations with Armenia in December 1992. It wasn't recognised by some countries including Pakistan, which most of the nations did. As of earliest days of silk route, there has been a strong cultural, moral and ancient other traditional relations among the nations. It fully supports India's bid for permanent seat in UNSC and even completely supports India on Kashmir conflicts. There exists a small community of Armenians in India while there is also a small community of Indians.

Azerbaijan

India has embassy in Baku and Azerbaijan has an embassy in New Delhi. Both have been connected through ancient cultural links and trade routes (especially the Silk Route).

Bahrain

India is a close ally of Bahrain, the Kingdom along with its GCC partners are (according to Indian officials) among the most prominent backers of India's bid for a permanent seat on the UN Security Council,[321] and Bahraini officials have urged India to play a greater role in international affairs. For instance, over concerns about Iran's nuclear programme Bahrain's Crown Prince appealed to India to play an active role in resolving the crisis.[322]

Ties between India and Bahrain go back generations, with many of Bahrain's most prominent figures having close connections: poet and constitutionalist Ebrahim Al-Arrayedh grew up in Bombay, while 17th century Bahraini theologians Sheikh Salih Al-Karzakani and Sheikh Ja'far bin Kamal al-Din were influential figures in the Kingdom of Golkonda[323] and the development of Shia thought in the sub-continent.

Bahraini politicians have sought to enhance these long standing ties, with Parliamentary Speaker Khalifa Al Dhahrani in 2007 leading a delegation of parliamentarians and business leaders to meet the then Indian President Pratibha Patil, the then opposition leader L K Advani, and take part in training and media interviews.[324] Politically, it is easier for Bahrain's politicians to seek training and advice from India than it is from the United States or other western alternative.

Adding further strength to the ties, Sheikh Hamad Bin Isa Al-Khalifa visited India during which MOUs and bilateral deals worth $450 million were approved.[325] India expressed its support for Bahrain's bid for a non-permanent seat in the UNSC in 2026–27.[326]

Cyprus

India supported Cyprus during its struggle for independence from British colonial rule. India supported Greeks in Cyprus during the Turkish invasion of Cyprus in 1974, and lobbied for the international recognition of the Government of Nicosia as the sole legal representative of the entire nation. India has consistently supported and voted for a peaceful resolution of the Cyprus dispute at the United Nations.

Georgia
Iran
Rabindranath Tagore as a guest of Iran's parliament in the 1930s.

Independent India and Iran established diplomatic links on 15 March 1950.[331] After the Iranian Revolution of 1979, Iran withdrew from CENTO and dissociated itself from US-friendly countries, including Pakistan, which automatically meant improved relationship with the Republic of India.

Currently, the two countries have friendly relations in many areas. There are significant trade ties, particularly in crude oil imports into India and diesel exports to Iran. Iran frequently objected to Pakistan's attempts to draft anti-India resolutions at international organisations such as the OIC. India welcomed Iran's inclusion as an observer state in the SAARC regional organisation. Lucknow continues to be a major centre of Shiite culture and Persian study in the subcontinent.

In the 1990s, India and Iran both supported the Northern Alliance in Afghanistan against the Taliban regime. They continue to collaborate in supporting the broad-based anti-Taliban government led by Hamid Karzai and backed by the United States.

However, one complex issue in Indo-Iran relations is the issue of Iran's nuclear programme. In this intricate issue, India tries to make a delicate balance. According to Rejaul Laskar, an Indian expert on international relations, "India's position on Iran's nuclear programme has been consistent, principled and balanced, and makes an endeavour to reconcile Iran's quest for energy security with the international community's concerns on proliferation. So, while India acknowledges and supports Iran's ambitions to achieve energy security and in particular, its quest for peaceful use of nuclear energy, it is also India's principled position that Iran must meet all its obligations under the international law, particularly its obligations under the nuclear Non Proliferation Treaty (NPT) and other such treaties to which it is a signatory"[332]

Following an attack on an Israeli diplomat in India in February 2012, the Delhi Police contended that the Iranian Revolutionary Guard Corps had some involvement in the attack. This was subsequently confirmed in July 2012, after a report by the Delhi Police found evidence that members of Iranian Revolutionary Guard Corps had been involved in the 13 February bomb attack in the capital.[333]

Iraq

Iraq was one of the few countries in the Middle East with which India established diplomatic relations at the embassy level immediately after its independence in 1947.[334] Both nations signed the "Treaty of Perpetual Peace and Friendship" in 1952 and an agreement of co-operation on cultural affairs in 1954.[334] India was amongst the first to recognise the Ba'ath Party-led government, and Iraq remained neutral during the Indo-Pakistani War of 1965. However, Iraq sided alongside other Persian Gulf states in supporting Pakistan against India during the Indo-Pakistani War of 1971, which saw the creation of Bangladesh.[334] The eight-year-long Iran–Iraq War caused a steep decline in trade and commerce between the two nations.[334]

During the 1991 Persian Gulf War, India remained neutral but permitted refuelling for US aircraft.[334] It opposed UN sanctions on Iraq, but the period of war and Iraq's isolation further diminished India's commercial and diplomatic ties.[334] From 1999 onwards, Iraq and India began to work towards a stronger relationship. Iraq had supported India's right to conduct nuclear tests following its tests of five nuclear weapons on 11 and 13 May 1998.[334] In 2000, the then-Vice-President of Iraq Taha Yassin Ramadan visited India, and on 6 August 2002 President Saddam Hussein conveyed Iraq's "unwavering support" to India over the Kashmir conflict with Pakistan.[334][335] India and Iraq established joint ministerial committees and trade delegations to promote extensive bilateral co-operation.[336][337] Although initially disrupted during the 2003 invasion of Iraq, diplomatic and commercial ties between India and the new democratic government of Iraq have since been normalised.[337]

Israel
A Beni-Israel family at Bombay

The establishment of Israel at the end of World War II was a complex issue. Based on its own experience during partition, when 14 million people were displaced[338][339] and an estimated 200,000 to 500,000 people were killed in Punjab Province,[340] India had recommended a single state, as did Iran and Yugoslavia (later to undergo its own genocidal partition). The state could allocate Arab- and Jewish-majority provinces with a goal of preventing partition of historic Palestine and prevent widespread conflict.[341][better source needed] But, the final UN resolution recommended partition of Mandatory Palestine into Arab and Jewish states based on religious and ethnic majorities. India opposed this in the final vote as it did not agree with the concept of partition on the basis of religion.[342][better source needed]

Due to the security threat from a US-backed Pakistan and its nuclear programme in the 1980s, Israel and India started a clandestine relationship that involved co-operation between their respective intelligence agencies.[343] Israel shared India's concerns about the growing danger posed by Pakistan and nuclear proliferation to Iran and other Arab states.[344]

PMNarendra Modi, with Former Prime Minister of Israel, Benjamin Netanyahu, during a press meet, in Jerusalem, (2017)

Since the establishment of full diplomatic relations with Israel in 1992, India has improved its relation with the Jewish state. India is regarded as Israel's strongest ally in Asia, and Israel is India's second-largest arms supplier. Since India achieved its independence in 1947, it has supported Palestinian self-determination. India recognised Palestine's statehood following Palestine's declaration on 18 November 1988[345] and Indo-Palestinian relations were first established in 1974.[346] This has not adversely affected India's improved relations with Israel. India has entertained the Israeli Prime Minister in a visit in 2003,[347] and Israel has entertained Indian dignitaries such as Finance Minister Jaswant Singh in diplomatic visits. India and Israel collaborate in scientific and technological endeavours. Israel's Minister for Science and Technology has expressed interest in collaborating with the Indian Space Research Organisation (ISRO) towards using satellites to better manage land and other resources. Israel has also expressed interest in participating in ISRO's Chandrayaan Mission involving an unmanned mission to the moon.[348] On 21 January 2008, India successfully launched an Israeli spy satellite into orbit from Sriharikota space station in southern India.[349]

Narendra Modi's warm visit to Israel, hugging Former President Reuven Rivlin in 2017

Israel and India share intelligence on terrorist groups. They have developed close defence and security ties since establishing diplomatic relations in 1992. India has bought more than $5 billion worth of Israeli equipment since 2002. In addition, Israel is training Indian military units and in 2008 was discussing an arrangement to give Indian commandos instruction in counter-terrorist tactics and urban warfare.[350] In December 2008, Israel and India signed a memorandum to set up an Indo-Israel Legal Colloquium to facilitate discussions and exchange programmes between judges and jurists of the two countries.[351]

Following the Israeli invasion of Lebanon in 2006, India stated that the Israeli use of force was "disproportionate and excessive".[352]

India-Israel relationship has been very close and warm under the premiership of Narendra Modi since 2014. In 2017, he was the first ever Prime Minister of India to visit Israel.[353]

Lebanon

India and Lebanon enjoy cordial and friendly relations based on many complementarities such as political system based on parliamentary democracy, non-alignment, human rights, commitment to a just world order, regional and global peace, liberal market economy and a vibrant entrepreneurial spirit. India has a peacekeeping force as part of the United Nations Interim Force in Lebanon (UNIFIL). One infantry battalion is deployed in Lebanon and about 900 personnel are stationed in the Eastern part of Southern Lebanon.[354] The force also provided non-patrol aid to citizens.[355] India and Lebanon have very good relations since the 1950s.

Oman

India–Oman relations are foreign relations between India and the Sultanate of Oman. India has an embassy in Muscat, Oman. The Indian consulate was opened in Muscat in February 1955 and five years later it was upgraded to a consulate general and later developed into a full-fledged embassy in 1971. The first Ambassador of India arrived in Muscat in 1973. Oman established its embassy in New Delhi in 1972 and a consulate general in Mumbai in 1976.

$5.6 bn Oman-India energy pipeline plans progressing: Fox Petroleum Group envisions a roughly five-year timeframe for the execution of the pipeline project.[356]

Ajay Kumar, the chairman and managing director of Fox Petroleum, based in New Delhi, which is an associate company of Fox Petroleum FZC in the UAE, said that Mr Modi had "fired the best weapon of economic development and growth". "He has given a red carpet for global players to invest in India," Mr Kumar added. "It will boost all sectors of industry – especially for small-scale manufacturing units and heavy industries too."

[356] [357] [358] [359] [360] [361]

Saudi Arabia

Bilateral relations between India and the Saudi Arabia have strengthened considerably owing to co-operation in regional affairs and trade. Saudi Arabia is the one of largest suppliers of oil to India, who is one of the top seven trading partners and the 5th biggest investor in Saudi Arabia.[362]

India was one of the first nations to establish ties with the Third Saudi State. During the 1930s, India heavily funded Nejd through financial subsidies.[363]

Prime Minister Narendra Modi in conversation with King Salman bin Abdul Aziz Al Saud of Saudi Arabia

India's strategic relations with Saudi Arabia have been affected by the latter's close ties with Pakistan.[364] Saudi Arabia supported Pakistan's stance on the Kashmir conflict and during the Indo-Pakistani War of 1971 at the expense of its relations with India.[365] The Soviet Union's close relations with India also served as a source of consternation.[364][365] During the Persian Gulf War (1990–91), India officially maintained neutrality. Saudi Arabia's close military and strategic ties with Pakistan have also been a source of continuing strain.[364][365]

Since the 1990s, both nations have taken steps to improve ties. Saudi Arabia has supported granting observer status to India in the Organisation of Islamic Cooperation (OIC) and has expanded its co-operation with India to fight terrorism.[366] In January 2006, King Abdullah of Saudi Arabia made a special visit to India, becoming the first Saudi monarch in 51 years to do so.[364] The Saudi king and former Prime Minister of India Manmohan Singh signed an agreement forging a strategic energy partnership that was termed the "Delhi Declaration".[367] The pact provides for a "reliable, stable and increased volume of crude oil supplies to India through long-term contracts."[368] Both nations also agreed on joint ventures and the development of oil and natural gas in public and private sectors.[368] An Indo-Saudi joint declaration in the Indian capital New Delhi described the king's visit as "heralding a new era in India-Saudi Arabia relations".[366]

Syria
Syrian Christian Women in Kerala (1912)

Bilateral relations between the India and Syria are historic where the two have ancient civilizational ties. Both countries were on the Silk Road through which civilizational exchanges took place for centuries. The Syriac Christianity, originating in ancient Syria, spread further to the East and created the first Christian communities in ancient India. The ancient Syriac language among the Syrian Christians of Kerala was also brought to Kerala by St Thomas in the 1st century CE. Even today the language continues to be taught in colleges and universities in Kerala.

A common nationalism and secular orientation, membership of NAM and similar perceptions on many issues further strengthened a bond between the two states. India supported "Syria's legitimate right to regain the occupied Golan Heights". In turn, this was reciprocated with Syrian recognition that Kashmir is a bilateral issue as well as general support of India's concerns and even candidature at various international forums.

Turkey

Due to controversial issues such as Turkey's close relationship with Pakistan, relations between the two countries have often been blistered at certain times, but better at others. India and Turkey's relationship alters from unsureness to collaboration when the two nations work together to combat terrorism in Central and South Asia, and the Middle East. India and Turkey are also connected by history, seeing as they have known each other since the days of the Ottoman Empire, and seeing as India was one of the countries to send aid to Turkey following its war of independence. The Indian real estate firm GMR, has invested in and is working towards the modernisation of Istanbul's Sabiha Gökçen International Airport.

The relations took a nose-dive after Turkish president Recep Tayyip Erdoğan spoke against of India on Kashmir issue and supported Pakistan, during his address at United Nations General Assembly after Pakistan PM Imran Khan, in September 2019. In February 2020, he visited Islamabad and held talks with Imran Khan, on "improving and bolding the relations with Islamabad". At the end of the month, during the riots of Delhi and CAA-NRC protests in India, he criticized the government for its policies. He also had criticized the move of Indian Government on the Galwan Valley skirmishes with China on LAC.

United Arab Emirates
The President, Shri Pranab Mukherjee and the Prime Minister, Shri Narendra Modi with the Chief Guest of the Republic Day, The Crown Prince of Abu Dhabi, Deputy Supreme Commander of U.A.E. Armed Forces, General Sheikh Mohammed Bin Zayed Al Nahyan, at Rajpath, on the occasion of the 68th Republic Day Parade 2017, in New Delhi.

India–United Arab Emirates relations refers to the bilateral relations that exist between the Republic of India and the United Arab Emirates. After the creation of the Federation in 1971, India-UAE relations flourished. Today UAE and India share political, economical and cultural links. There are over a million Indians in the United Arab Emirates, being by far the largest migrant group in the country.[1] A large Indian expatriate community resides and engages in the UAE in economically productive activities and has played a significant role in the evolution of the UAE. In 2008–09, India emerged as the largest trade partner of the UAE with bilateral trade between the two countries exceeding US$44.5 billion. [9] UAE and India are each other's main trading parthers. The trade totals over $75 billion (AED275.25 billion).

Arab states of the Persian Gulf

India and the Arab states of the Persian Gulf enjoy strong cultural and economic ties. This is reflected in the fact that more than 50% of the oil consumed by India comes from the Persian Gulf countries[369] and Indian nationals form the largest expatriate community in the Arabian peninsula.[370][better source needed] The annual remittance by Indian expatriates in the region amounted to US$20 billion in 2007.[371] India is one of the largest trading partners of the CCASG with non-oil trade between India and Dubai alone amounting to US$19 billion in 2007.[372] The Persian Gulf countries have also played an important role in addressing India's energy security concerns, with Saudi Arabia and Kuwait regularly increasing their oil supply to India to meet the country's rising energy demand. In 2005, Kuwait increased its oil exports to India by 10% increasing the net oil trade between the two to US$4.5 billion.[373] In 2008, Qatar decided to invest US$5 billion in India's energy sector.[374]

India has maritime security arrangement in place with Oman and Qatar.[375] In 2008, a landmark defence pact was signed, under which India committed its military assets to protect "Qatar from external threats".[376] There has been progress in a proposed deep-sea gas pipeline from Qatar, via Oman, to India.[377]

Europe

Albania
Austria

Austria–India relations refers to the bilateral ties between Austria and India. Indo-Austrian relations were established in May 1949 by the first Prime Minister of India Jawaharlal Nehru and the Chancellor of Austria Leopold Figl.[378] Historically, Indo-Austrian ties have been particularly strong and India intervened in June 1953 in Austria's favour whilst negotiations were going on with Soviet Union about the Austrian State Treaty.[379] There is a fully functioning Indian embassy in Vienna, Austria's capital, which is concurrently accredited to the United Nations offices in the city.[380] Austria is represented in India by its embassy and Trade commission in New Delhi, India's capital, as well as honorary consulates in Mumbai, Kolkata, Chennai and Goa.[381]

Belarus

Belarus has an embassy in New Delhi.[382] Since 14 May 1992, India has an embassy in Minsk.[383]

Belgium

Belgium has an embassy in New Delhi, consulates in Chennai and Mumbai, and an honorary consulate in Kolkata.[384] India has an embassy in Brussels.[385]

Bosnia and Herzegovina
Bulgaria

Bulgaria has an embassy in New Delhi and an honorary consulate in Kolkata.[386] India has an embassy in Sofia.[387]

Croatia

Since February 1995, Croatia has an embassy in New Delhi and an honorary consulate in Mumbai.[388] Since 28 April 1996, India has an embassy in Zagreb.[389]

Czech Republic

Czech-Indian relations were established in 1921 by a consulate in Bombay.[390] The Czech Republic has an embassy in New Delhi.[391] Consulates of Czech Republic in India are in Chennai, Mumbai and Kolkata. India has an embassy in Prague.[392]

Denmark

Denmark has an embassy in New Delhi, and India has an embassy in Copenhagen.[393][394]

Tranquebar, a town in the southern Indian state of Tamil Nadu, was a Danish colony in India from 1620 to 1845. It is spelled Trankebar or Tranquebar in Danish, which comes from the native Tamil, Tarangambadi, meaning "place of the singing waves". It was sold, along with the other Danish settlements in mainland India, most notably Serampore (now in West Bengal), to Great Britain in 1845. The Nicobar Islands were also colonised by Denmark, until sold to the British in 1868, who made them part of the British Indian Empire.

The Denmark Tavern of Serampore in West Bengal
India released stamp commemorating Henning Holck-Larsen, founder of Larsen & Toubro.

After Independence in 1947, Indian prime minister Jawaharlal Nehru's visit to Denmark in 1957 laid the foundation for a friendly relationship between India and Denmark that has endured ever since. The bilateral relations between India and Denmark are cordial and friendly, based on synergies in political, economic, academic and research fields. There have been periodic high level visits between the two countries.[395]

Anders Fogh Rasmussen, former Prime Minister of Denmark, accompanied by a large business delegation, paid a state visit to India from 4 to 8 February 2008. He visited Infosys, Biocon and IIM Bangalore in Bangalore and Agra. He launched an 'India Action Plan', which called for strengthening of the political dialogue, strengthening of co-operation in trade and investments, research in science and technology, energy, climate and environment, culture, education, student exchanges and attracting skilled manpower and IT experts to Denmark for short periods. The two countries signed an Agreement for establishment of a Bilateral Joint Commission for Cooperation.

In July 2012, the Government of India decided to scale down its diplomatic ties with Denmark after that country's refusal to appeal in their Supreme Court against a decision of its lower court rejecting the extradition of Purulia arms drop case prime accused Kim Davy a.k.a. Niels Holck. Agitated over Denmark's refusal to act on India's repeated requests to appeal in their apex court to facilitate Davy's extradition to India, government issued a circular directing all senior officials not to meet or entertain any Danish diplomat posted in India.[396]

Estonia

India's first recognition of Estonia came on 22 September 1921 when the former had just acquired membership in the League of Nations. India re-recognised Estonia on 9 September 1991 and diplomatic relations were established on 2 December of the same year in Helsinki. Neither country has a resident ambassador. Estonia is represented in India by and an Embassy in New Delhi one honorary consulate in Mumbai . India is represented in Estonia through its embassy in Helsinki (Finland) and through an honorary consulate in Tallinn.

France
Rooster Motif 15th Century Sketch
Peacock Motif 19th Century Minakari
India France Joint Issue - 2003 - Commemorating relationship.

France and India established diplomatic relationships soon after India's independence from the British Empire in 1947. France's Indian possessions were returned to India after a treaty of cession was signed by the two countries in May 1956. On 16 August 1962, India and France exchanged the instruments of ratification under which France ceded to India full sovereignty over the territories it held. Pondicherry and the other enclaves of Karaikal, Mahe and Yanam came to be administered as the Union Territory of Puducherry from 1 July 1963.

France, Russia and Israel were the only countries that did not condemn India's decision to go nuclear in 1998.[397] In 2003, France became the largest supplier of nuclear fuel and technology to India and remains a large military and economic trade partner. India's candidacy for permanent membership in the UN Security Council has found very strong support from former French President Nicolas Sarkozy. The Indian Government's decisions to purchase French Scorpène-class submarines worth US$3 billion and 43 Airbus aircraft for Air India worth US$2.5 billion have further cemented the strategic, military and economic co-operation between India and France.

France's decision to ban schoolchildren from wearing of head-dresses and veils had the unintended consequence of affecting Sikh children who have been refused entry in public schools. The Indian Government, citing historic traditions of the Sikh community, has requested French authorities to review the situation so as to not to exclude Sikh children from education.

President Nicolas Sarkozy and François Hollande visited India in January 2008 and 2016 respectively as the Chief Guest of the annual Republic Day parade in New Delhi. France was the first country to sign a nuclear energy co-operation agreement with India; this was done during Prime Minister Singh's visit, following the waiver by the Nuclear Suppliers Group. During the Bastille Day celebrations on 14 July 2009, a detachment of 400 Indian troops marched alongside the French troops and the then Indian Prime Minister Manmohan Singh was the guest of honour.[398]

Finland

India has an embassy in Helsinki.[399] Finland has an embassy in New Delhi and three honorary consulates in Kolkata, Chennai, and Mumbai.[400]

Germany
Arrival of the first Indian student to Dresden, East Germany, in 1951

During the Cold War India maintained diplomatic relations with both West Germany and East Germany. Since the fall of the Berlin Wall, and the reunification of Germany, relations have further improved.

Germany is India's largest trade partner in Europe. Between 2004 and 2013, Indo-German trade grew in volume but dropped in importance.[401] According to Indian Ministry of Commerce MX data: Total trade between India and Germany was $5.5billion (3.8% share of Indian trade and ranked 6) in 2004 and $21.6billion (2.6% share of Indian trade and ranked 9) in 2013. Indian exports to Germany were $2.54billion (3.99% ranked 6) in 2004 and $7.3billion (2.41% ranked 10) in 2013. Indian imports from Germany were $2.92billion (3.73% ranked 6) in 2004 and $14.33billion (2.92% ranked 10) in 2013.

Embassy of the Republic of India in Berlin (2008)

Indo-German ties are transactional. The strategic relationship between Germany and India suffers from sustained anti-Asian sentiment,[402][citation needed] institutionalized discrimination against minority groups,[403][404][405][406] and xenophobic incidents against Indians in Germany. The 2007 Mügeln mob attack on Indians and the 2015 Leipzig University internship controversy has clouded the predominantly commercial-oriented relationship between the two countries. Stiff competition between foreign manufactured goods within the Indian market has seen machine-tools, automotive parts and medical supplies from German Mittelstand ceding ground to high-technology imports manufactured by companies located in ASEAN & BRICS countries.[407][408][409][410] The Volkswagen emissions scandal drew the spotlight to corrupt behaviour in German boardrooms[411][412][413] and brought back memories of the HDW bribery scandal surrounding the procurement of Shishumar-class submarines by the Indian Navy. The India-Germany strategic relationship is limited by the insignificance of German geopolitical influence in Asian affairs. Germany has no strategic footprint in Asia. Germany like India is working towards gaining permanent seats in the United Nations Security Council.

Greece
Greek and Indian deities on the coinage of Agathocles, circa 180 BCE. Besides the Greek god Zeus, the Indian deities have been variously identified as the Buddha, Vishnu, Shiva, Vasudeva or Balarama.

For the Ancient Greeks "India" (Greek: Ινδία) meant only the upper Indus until the time of Alexander the Great. Afterwards, "India" meant to the Greeks most of the northern half of the Indian subcontinent. The Greeks referred to the Indians as "Indói" (Greek: Ἰνδοί), literally meaning "the people of the Indus River". Indians called the Greeks Yonas or "Yavanas" from Ionians. Indo-Greek kingdoms were founded by the successor of Alexander the Great. (Greek conquests in India) The Periplus of the Erythraean Sea was a manual written in Greek for navigators who carried trade between Roman Empire and other regions, including ancient India. It gives detailed information about the ports, routes and commodities. The Greek ethnographer and explorer of the Hellenistic period, Megasthenes was the ambassador of Seleucus I at India. In his work, Indika (Greek: Ινδικά), he wrote the history of Indians and their culture. Megasthenes also mentioned the prehistoric arrival of God Dionysus and Herakles (Megasthenes' Herakles) in India.

There is now tangible evidence indicating that the settlement of Greek merchants in Bengal must have begun as early as the beginning of the seventeenth century.[414] Dimitrios Galanos (Greek: Δημήτριος Γαλανός, 1760–1833) was the earliest recorded Greek Indologist. His translations of Sanskrit texts into Greek made knowledge of the philosophical and religious ideas of India available to many Europeans. A "Dimitrios Galanos" Chair for Hellenic Studies was established at Jawaharlal Nehru University in New Delhi, India in September 2000.

In modern time, diplomatic relations between Greece and India were established in May 1950. The new Greek Embassy building in New Delhi was inaugurated on 6 February 2001.[415] As of 2020, the relation between the two countries is closer than ever and is considered historical and strategic by both parts.[416][417][better source needed]

Hungary

Indian embassy is located in Budapest.

Iceland

Iceland and India established diplomatic relations in 1972. The Embassy of Iceland in London was accredited to India and the Embassy of India in Oslo, Norway, was accredited to Iceland. However, it was only after 2003 that the two countries began close diplomatic and economic relationships.[418] In 2003, President of Iceland Ólafur Ragnar Grímsson visited India on a diplomatic mission. This was the first visit by an Icelandic President to India. During the visit, Iceland pledged support to New Delhi's candidature for a permanent seat in the United Nation Security Council thus becoming the first Nordic country to do so. This was followed by an official visit of President of India A. P. J. Abdul Kalam to Iceland in May 2005.[419] Following this a new embassy of Iceland was opened in New Delhi on 26 February 2006.[418] Soon, an Indian Navy team visited Iceland on friendly mission.[420] Gunnar Pálsson is the ambassador of Iceland to India. The Embassy's area of accreditation, apart from India includes Bangladesh, Indonesia, the Seychelles, Singapore, Sri Lanka, Malaysia, Maldives, Mauritius and Nepal.[421] India appointed S. Swaminathan as the first resident ambassador to Iceland in March 2008.[422]

Ireland

Indo-Irish relations picked up steam during their respective campaigns for independence from the British Empire. Political relations between the two states have largely been based on socio-cultural ties, although political and economic ties have also helped build relations. Indo-Irish relations were greatly strengthened by Pandit Nehru, Éamon de Valera, Rabindranath Tagore, W. B. Yeats, James Joyce, and, above all, Annie Besant. Politically, relations have not been cold or warm. Mutual benefit has led to economic ties that are fruitful for both states.[citation needed] Visits by government leaders have kept relations cordial at regular intervals.

Annie Besant, one of the founders of the Banaras Hindu University, was regarded as a champion of human freedom, she was an ardent supporter of both Irish and Indian self-rule and the first woman president of Indian National Congress
Italy

India maintains an embassy in Rome, and a consulate-general in Milan. Italy has an embassy in New Delhi, and consulate-generals in Mumbai and Calcutta.

Indo-Italian relations have historically been cordial. In recent times, their state has mirrored the political fortunes of Sonia Maino-Gandhi, the Italian-born leader of the Indian National Congress and de facto leader of the UPA government of Manmohan Singh.

Indian Sikh soldiers in the Italian campaign

Since 2012 the relationship has been affected by the ongoing Enrica Lexie case: two Indian fishermen were killed on the Indian fishing vessel St. Antony as a result of gunshot wounds following a confrontation with the Italian oil tanker Enrica Lexie in international waters, off the Kerala coast.

After a period of tensions, in 2017 Italian Prime Minister Paolo Gentiloni visited India and met his Indian counterpart Narendra Modi; they held extensive talks in order to strengthen the political cooperation and to boost the bilateral trade.[427]

There are around 150,000 people of Indian Origins living in Italy. Around 1,000 Italian citizens reside in India, mostly working on behalf of Italian industrial groups.

Lithuania
Luxembourg

Relations were established in 1947, following India's independence. Luxembourg operates an Embassy in New Delhi whilst India operates a Consulate General in Luxembourg City. Bilateral Trade stood at US$37 Million in 2014 and trade continues to grow every year. Diplomats from both countries have visited the other several time. In 2019, Luxembourg plans to host the annual Asian Infrastructure Investment Bank and open an economic mission in India.

Malta

Malta opened a High Commission of Malta, New Delhi in New Delhi in 2007. Malta also has an honorary consulate in Mumbai. India is represented in Malta by its high commission in Valletta.

Moldova

The Indian embassy to Moldova is accredited from Bucharest, Romania. Moldova maintains an honorary consulate in New Delhi and a consulate in Mumbai. Both countries have taken steps to deepen their ties, which is still maintained in a modest level. Both countries have been found supporting each other at many international platforms like the United Nations through reciprocal support mechanism. India-Moldova bilateral trade has been rather modest.

Monaco
Netherlands

India–Netherlands relations refer to foreign relations between India and the Netherlands. India maintains an embassy in The Hague, Netherlands and the Netherlands maintains an embassy in New Delhi and a consulate general in Mumbai. Both countries established diplomatic relations in 1947.

Norway

In 2012, Trond Giske met with Minister of Finance Pranab Mukherjee, to save[428] Telenor's investments to put forth Norway's "strong wish" that there must not be a waiting period between the confiscation of telecom licences and the re-sale of those.[429] The leader of Telenor attended the meeting.

North Macedonia

Mother Teresa, honoured in the Catholic Church as Saint Teresa of Calcutta became an Indian citizen in 1951, was born in Skopje (in present-day North Macedonia) in 1910. India has embassy in Sofia, Bulgaria jointly accredited to Republic of Macedonia. Both Macedonia has embassy in New Delhi and honorary consulate in Kolkata, Mumbai, Chennai and Bangalore.

Poland

Historically, relations have generally been close and friendly, characterised by understanding and co-operation on international front.[430]

Portugal

India and Portugal have a long history of relations ever since the Portuguese colonisation in British Raj.

Russia
Indian PM Narendra Modi with Russian President Vladimir Putin. India and Russia enjoy strong strategic and military relations.
(New Delhi, 2021)

India's ties with the Russian Federation are time-tested and based on continuity, trust and mutual understanding. There is national consensus in both the countries on the need to preserve and strengthen India-Russia relations and further consolidate the strategic partnership between the two countries. A Declaration on Strategic Partnership was signed between present Russian President Vladimir Putin and former Indian Prime Minister Atal Bihari Vajpayee in October 2000 the partnership is also referred as "special and privileged strategic partnership" .

Russia and India have decided not to renew the 1971 Indo-Soviet Peace and Friendship Treaty and have sought to follow what both describe as a more pragmatic, less ideological relationship. Russian President Yeltsin's visit to India in January 1993 helped cement this new relationship. Ties have grown stronger with President Vladimir Putin's 2004 visit. The pace of high-level visits has since increased, as has discussion of major defence purchases. Russia, is working for the development of the Kudankulam Nuclear Power Plant, that will be capable of producing 1000 MW of electricity. Gazprom, is working for the development of oil and natural gas, in the Bay of Bengal. India and Russia, have collaborated extensively, on space technology. Other areas of collaboration include software, ayurveda, etc. India and Russia, have set a determination in increasing trade to $10 billion. Cooperation between clothing manufacturers of the two countries continues to strengthen. India and Russia signed an agreement on joint efforts to increase investment and trade volumes in the textile industry in both countries. In signing the document included representatives of the Russian Union of Entrepreneurs of Textile and Light Industry Council and apparel exports of India (AEPC). A co-operation agreement provides, inter alia, exchange of technology and know-how in textile production. For this purpose, a special Commission on Affairs textile (Textile Communication Committee). Counter-terrorism techniques are also in place between Russia and India. In 2007 President Vladimir Putin was guest of honour at Republic Day celebration on 26 January 2007. 2008, has been declared by both countries as the Russia-India Friendship Year. Bollywood films are quite popular in Russia. The Indian public sector oil company ONGC bought Imperial Energy Corporation in 2008. In December 2008, during President Medvedev's visit, to New Delhi, India and Russia, signed a nuclear energy co-operation agreement. In March 2010, Russian Prime Minister Vladimir Putin signed an additional 19 pacts with India which included civilian nuclear energy, space and military co-operation and the final sale of Admiral Gorshkov (Aircraft Carrier) along with MiG-29K fighter jets.

During the 2014 Crimean crisis India refused to support American sanctions against Russia and one of India's national security advisers Shivshankar Menon was reported to have said "There are legitimate Russian and other interests involved and we hope they are discussed and resolved."[433]

On 7 August 2014 India and Russia held a joint counter-terrorism exercise near Moscow boundary with China and Mongolia. It involved the use of tanks and armoured vehicles.[434]

India and Russia have so far conducted three rounds of INDRA exercises. The first exercise was carried out in 2005 in Rajasthan, followed by Prshkov in Russia. The third exercise was conducted at Chaubattia in Kumaon hills in October 2010.[434][435]

Romania

India has an embassy in Bucharest[436] and an honorary consulate in Timișoara. Romania has an embassy in New Delhi and an honorary consulate in Kolkata.[437]

Serbia
  • India has an embassy in Belgrade.[438]
  • Serbia has an embassy in New Delhi and an honorary consulate in Chennai.[439]
  • The relations are seen as one the most closest for both the nations.[440]
Slovakia

India has an embassy in Bratislava and Slovakia has an embassy in New Delhi.

Slovenia
Spain

Diplomatic ties with Spain started in 1956.[443] The first Spanish embassy was established in Delhi in 1958. India and Spain have had cordial relationship with each other especially after the establishment of democracy in Spain in 1978. Spain has been a main tourist spot for Indians over the years. Many presidents including Prathibha Patil visited Spain. The royal family of Spain have always liked the humble nature of the Indian government and they have thus paid several visits to India. There was no direct flight from India to Spain but it all changed in 1986 when Iberain travels started to fly directly from Mumbai to Madrid. However, it was stopped in 22 months. In 2006 this issue of direct flight was reconsidered so as to improve the ties between India and Spain. "Zindagi Na Milegi Dobara" was shot completely in Spain in 2011. The tourism ministry of Spain are using this movie to promote tourism to Spain in India.

Sweden
  • India has an embassy in Stockholm, which is also accredited to Latvia.[444]
  • Sweden has an embassy in New Delhi, which is also accredited to Sri Lanka, Nepal, Bhutan and the Maldives. It has three honorary consulates in Chennai, Kolkata and Mumbai.[445]
Switzerland

India is one of Switzerland's most important partners in Asia. Bilateral and political contacts are constantly developing, and trade and scientific co-operation between the two countries are flourishing.[448] Switzerland was the first country in the World to sign a Friendship treaty with India in 1947.[449]

Ukraine

Diplomatic relations between India and Ukraine were established in January 1992. The Indian Embassy in Kyiv was opened in May 1992 and Ukraine opened its mission in New Delhi in February 1993. The Consulate General of India in Odessa functioned from 1962 until its closure in March 1999.

United Kingdom
Narendra Modi addressing the British Parliament(2015)

UK& India has a high commission in London and two consulates-general in Birmingham and Edinburgh.[453] The United Kingdom has a high commission in New Delhi and five deputy high commissions in Mumbai, Chennai, Bangalore, Hyderabad and Kolkata.[454] Since 1947, India's relations with the United Kingdom have been through bilateral, as well as through the Commonwealth of Nations framework. Although the Sterling Area no longer exists and the Commonwealth is much more an informal forum, India and the UK still have many enduring links. This is in part due to the significant number of people of Indian origin living in the UK. The large South Asian population in the UK results in steady travel and communication between the two countries. The British Raj allowed for both cultures to imbibe tremendously from the other. The English language and cricket are perhaps the two most evident British exports, whilst in the UK food from the Indian subcontinent is very popular.[455] The United Kingdom's favourite food is often reported to be Indian cuisine, although no official study reports this.[455]

Economically the relationship between Britain and India is also strong. India is the second largest investor in Britain after the US.[456][457] Britain is also one of the largest investors in India.[458]

[459][460]

Vatican City & the Holy See

Formal bilateral relations between India and the Vatican City have existed since 12 June 1948. An Apostolic Delegation existed in India from 1881. The Holy See has a nunciature in New Delhi whilst India has accredited its embassy in Bern, Switzerland to the Holy See as well. India's Ambassador in Bern has traditionally been accredited to the Holy See.

The connections between the Catholic Church and India can be traced back to the apostle St. Thomas, who, according to tradition, came to India in 52 CE in the 9th century, the patriarch of the Nestorians in Persia sent bishops to India. There is a record of an Indian bishop visiting Rome in the early part of the 12th century.

The diplomatic mission was established as the Apostolic Delegation to the East Indies in 1881, and included Ceylon, and was extended to Malaca in 1889, and then to Burma in 1920, and eventually included Goa in 1923. It was raised to an Internunciature by Pope Pius XII on 12 June 1948 and to a full Apostolic Nunciature by Pope Paul VI on 22 August 1967.

There have been three Papal visits to India. The first Pope to visit India was Pope Paul VI, who visited Mumbai in 1964 to attend the Eucharistic Congress. Pope John Paul II visited India in February 1986 and November 1999. Several Indian dignitaries have, from time to time, called on the Pope in the Vatican. These include Prime Minister Indira Gandhi in 1981 and Prime Minister I. K. Gujral in September 1987. Atal Bihari Vajpayee, Prime Minister, called on the Pope in June 2000 during his official visit to Italy. Vice-President Bhairon Singh Shekhawat represented the country at the funeral of Pope John Paul II.

European Union
Indian PM Narendra Modi with the President of European CouncilDonald Tusk, and the President of European CommissionJean-Claude Juncker, at the EU-India Summit, Brussels, 2016

India was one of the first countries to develop relations with the European Union. The Joint Political Statement of 1993 and the 1994 Co-operation Agreement were the foundational agreements for the bilateral partnership. In 2004, India and European Union became "Strategic Partners". A Joint Action Plan was agreed upon in 2005 and updated in 2008. India-EU Joint Statements was published in 2009 and 2012 following the India-European Union Summits.[461]

India and the European Commission initiated negotiations on a Broad-based Trade and Investment Agreement (BTIA) in 2007. Seven rounds of negotiations have been completed without reaching a Free Trade Agreement.[462]

According to the Government of India, trade between India and the EU was $57.25 billion between April and October 2014 and stood at $101.5 billion for the fiscal period of 2014–2015.[463]

The European Union is India's second largest trade bloc, accounting for around 20% of Indian trade (Gulf Cooperation Council is the largest trade bloc with almost $160 billion in total trade[464]). India was the European Union's 8th largest trading partner in 2010. EU-India trade grew from €28.6 billion in 2003 to €72.7 billion in 2013.[465]

France, Germany and UK collectively represent the major part of EU-India trade.[466] Annual trade in commercial services tripled from €5.2billion in 2002 to €17.9 billion in 2010.[467] Denmark, Sweden, Finland and the Netherlands are the other more prominent European Union countries who trade with India.[468][469]

Oceania

Australia

India & Australia are both Commonwealth members. Sporting and cultural ties are significant. Australian cricketers often undertake large commercial ventures in India, enhanced with the IPL, and, to a lesser degree, the ICL. Bollywood productions enjoy a large market in Australia. In 2007, PM John Howard visited Mumbai and its entertainment industry, in efforts to increase Tourism in India to Australia.[470]

One-day International cricket match between Australia and India, MCG January 2004

There are ongoing strategic attempts to form an "Asian NATO" with India, Japan, the US and Australia through the Quadrilateral Security Dialogue.[471][472] During the first decade of the 21st century, the deepening of strategic relations between the two nations was prevented by a range of policy disagreements, such as India's refusal to sign the NPT and Australia's consequent refusal to provide India with uranium. Australia's parliament later allowed for the sale of uranium to India, following changes in government.[473] Closer strategic cooperation between India, Japan, the United States and Australia also began during the second half of the 2010s, which some analysts attributed to a desire to balance Chinese initiatives in the Indo-Pacific region.[474]

Cook Islands
Fiji

Fiji's relationship with the Republic of India is often seen by observers against the backdrop of the sometimes tense relations between its indigenous people and the 44 percent of the population who are of Indian descent. India has used its influence in international forums such as the Commonwealth of Nations and United Nations on behalf of ethnic Indians in Fiji, lobbying for sanctions against Fiji in the wake of the 1987 coups and the 2000 coup, both of which removed governments, one dominated and one led, by Indo-Fijians.

Kiribati
Marshall Islands
Micronesia
Nauru

India and Nauru relations have been established since the island nation's independence in 1968. Leaders of both countries have been meeting on the sidelines of some of the international forums of which both the nations are part of such as the United Nations and the Non-Aligned Movement. India is one of the largest donors to the island by improving the education ministry and creating transportation and computer connections for the MPs and the Speaker of the Parliament of Nauru. There were numerous visits by the President of Nauru to the republic for further strengthen in ties and co-operation.[475]

New Zealand

Bilateral relations were established between India and New Zealand in 1952.[476] India has a High Commission in Wellington with an Honorary Consulate in Auckland, while New Zealand has a High Commission in New Delhi along with a Consulate in Mumbai, trade offices in New Delhi and Mumbai and an Honorary Consulate in Chennai.

India Vs New Zealand One day International, 10 December 2010. Cricket is hugely popular in both nations and is seen as a connection between them.

India–New Zealand relations were cordial but not extensive after Indian independence. More recently, New Zealand has shown interest in extending ties with India due to India's impressive GDP growth.

Niue
Palau
Papua New Guinea

India and Papua New Guinea established relations in 1975, following PNG's independence from Australia. Since 1975, relations have grown between the two nations. India maintains a High Commission in Port Moresby while Papua New Guinea maintains a High Commission in New Delhi In the 2010 Fiscal Year, Trade between the two nations grew to US$239 Million. PNG has sent numerous military officers and students to be trained and educated in India's academies and universities respectively. In recent years, India and PNG have signed an Economic Partnership Agreement, allowing India to further invest into PNG's infrastructure, telecommunications and educational institutions.

Samoa

Both countries established diplomatic relations in June 1970.[477]

Solomon Islands
Tonga
Tuvalu
Vanuatu

India has its High Commission in Wellington, New Zealand, accredited to Vanuatu.

De Facto

Palestine
PM, Narendra Modi and the President of the State of Palestine, Mahmoud Abbas, at Ramallah, where Shree Modi received Grand Collar of the State of Palestine, (the highest civilian honour of State of Palestine, 2018)

After India achieved its independence in 1947, the country has moved to support Palestinian self-determination following the partition of India. In the light of a religious partition between India and Pakistan, the impetus to boost ties with Muslim states around the world was a further tie to India's support for the Palestinian cause. Though it started to waver in the late 1980s and 1990s as the recognition of Israel led to diplomatic exchanges, the ultimate support for the Palestinian cause was still an underlying concern. Beyond the recognition for Palestinian self-determination ties have been largely dependent upon socio-cultural bonds, while economic relations were neither cold nor warm.

India recognised Palestine's statehood following its own declaration on 18 November 1988;[345] although relations were first established in 1974.[346]

PNA President Abbas paid a State visit to India in September 2012, during which India pledged $10 million as aid. Indian officials said it was the third such donation, adding that New Delhi was committed to helping other development projects. India also pledged support to Palestine's bid for full and equal membership of the UN.

Taiwan

India recognized the Republic of China (R.O.C) from 1947 to 1950. On 1 April 1950, India officially recognised the People's Republic of China (P.R.C) as "China" and continued to recognise the PRC's "One China" policy in which island of Taiwan is a part of the Chinese territory. However, the bilateral relations between India and Taiwan have improved since the 1990s despite both nations not maintaining official diplomatic relations. Taiwan and India maintains non-governmental interaction via India-Taipei Association and via Taipei Economic and Cultural Centre respectively. In July 2020, the Indian government appointed a top career diplomat, Joint Secretary Gourangalal Das, the former head of the U.S. division in India's Ministry of External Affairs, as its new envoy to Taiwan.

International organizations

India participates in the following international organisations:[478]

India and the Commonwealth

India became independent within the British Commonwealth in August 1947 as the Dominion of India after the partition of India into India and the Dominion of Pakistan. King George VI, the last Emperor of India became the King of India with the Governor-General of India as his viceregal representative.

India became the very first Commonwealth republic on 26 January 1950, as a result of the London Declaration.

Non-Aligned Movement
Memorial stone plaque dedicated to Brijuni Declaration of the Non Aligned Movement, signed on 19 July 1956, exhibited in the Brijuni Museums, Republic of Croatia

India played an important role in the multilateral movements of colonies and newly independent countries that developed into the Non-Aligned Movement. Nonalignment had its origins in India's colonial experience and the nonviolent Indian independence movement led by the Congress, which left India determined to be the master of its fate in an international system dominated politically by Cold War alliances and economically by Western capitalism and Soviet communism. The principles of nonalignment, as articulated by Nehru and his successors, were preservation of India's freedom of action internationally through refusal to align India with any bloc or alliance, particularly those led by the United States or the Soviet Union; nonviolence and international co-operation as a means of settling international disputes. Nonalignment was a consistent feature of Indian foreign policy by the late 1940s and enjoyed strong, almost unquestioning support among the Indian elite.

The term "Non-Alignment" was coined by V K Menon in his speech at UN in 1953 which was later used by Indian Prime Minister, Jawaharlal Nehru during his speech in 1954 in Colombo, Sri Lanka. In this speech, Nehru described the five pillars to be used as a guide for China–India relations, which were first put forth by PRC Premier Zhou Enlai. Called Panchsheel (five restraints), these principles would later serve as the basis of the Non-Aligned Movement. The five principles were:

  1. Mutual respect for each other's territorial integrity and sovereignty
  2. Mutual non-aggression
  3. Mutual non-interference in domestic affairs
  4. Equality and mutual benefit
  5. Peaceful co-existence

Jawaharlal Nehru's concept of nonalignment brought India considerable international prestige among newly independent states that shared India's concerns about the military confrontation between the superpowers and the influence of the former colonial powers. New Delhi used nonalignment to establish a significant role for itself as a leader of the newly independent world in such multilateral organisations as the United Nations (UN) and the Nonaligned Movement. The signing of the Treaty of Peace, Friendship, and Cooperation between India and the Soviet Union in 1971 and India's involvement in the internal affairs of its smaller neighbours in the 1970s and 1980s tarnished New Delhi's image as a nonaligned nation and led some observers to note that in practice, nonalignment applied only to India's relations with countries outside South Asia.

Quad Alliance

The Quadrilateral Security Dialogue (QSD, also known as the Quad) is an informal strategic dialogue between the United States, India, Japan and Australia that is maintained by talks between member countries. The dialogue was initiated in 2007 by Japanese Prime Minister Shinzo Abe, with the support American Vice President Dick Cheney, Australian Prime Minister John Howard and Former Indian Prime Minister Manmohan Singh. The dialogue was paralleled by joint military exercises of an unprecedented scale, titled Exercise Malabar. The diplomatic and military arrangement was widely viewed as a response to increased Chinese economic and military power.

From left to right: Prime Minister of Japan Yoshihide Suga, Prime Minister of India Narendra Modi, President of United States Joe Biden and Prime Minister of Australia Scott Morrison in White House, USA.

On 12 March 2021 the first summit meeting was held virtually between U.S President Joe Biden, Indian Prime Minister Narendra Modi, Japanese Prime Minister Yoshihide Suga and Australian Prime Minister Scott Morrison.

United Nations

India was among the original members of the United Nations that signed the Declaration by United Nations at Washington on 1 January 1942 and also participated in the United Nations Conference on International Organization at San Francisco from 25 April to 26 June 1945. As a founding member of the United Nations, India strongly supports the purposes and principles of the UN and has made significant contributions to implementing the goals of the Charter, and the evolution of the UN's specialised programmes and agencies.[480] India is a charter member of the United Nations and participates in all of its specialised agencies and organisations. India has contributed troops to United Nations peacekeeping efforts in Korea,[481][482] Egypt and the Congo in its earlier years and in Somalia, Angola, Haiti, Liberia, Lebanon and Rwanda in recent years, and more recently in the South Sudan conflict.[483] India has been a member of the UN Security Council for eight terms (a total of 16 years).[484] India is a member of the G4 group of nations who back each other in seeking a permanent seat on the security council and advocate in favour of the reformation of the UNSC. India is also part of the Group of 77.

World Trade Organization

Described by the WTO's former chief, Pascal Lamy, as one of the organisation's "big brothers",[485] India was instrumental in bringing down the Doha Development Round of talks in 2008.[76] It has played an important role of representing as many as 100 developing nations during WTO summits.[486]

Former

Soviet Union
Soviet Stamp celebrating Indo-Soviet friendship & Cooperation

The dissolution of the Soviet Union and the emergence of the Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS) had major repercussions for Indian foreign policy. Substantial trade with the former Soviet Union plummeted after the Soviet collapse and has yet to recover. Longstanding military supply relationships were similarly disrupted due to questions over financing, although Russia continues to be India's largest supplier of military systems and spare parts.

The relationship with USSR was tested (and proven) during the 1971 war with Pakistan, which led to the subsequent liberation of Bangladesh. Soon after the victory of the Indian Armed Forces, one of the foreign delegates to visit India was Admiral S.G. Gorshkov, Chief of the Soviet Navy. During his visit to Mumbai (Bombay) he came on board INS Vikrant. During a conversation with Vice Admiral Swaraj Prakash, Gorshkov asked the Vice Admiral, "Were you worried about a battle against the American carrier?" He answered himself: "Well, you had no reason to be worried, as I had a Soviet nuclear submarine trailing the American task force all the way into the Indian Ocean."[487]

Yugoslavia

India had formal relations with Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia until 1992 with the Breakup of Yugoslavia.

Border disputes

India's territorial disputes with neighbouring Pakistan and People's Republic of China have played a crucial role in its foreign policy. India is also involved in minor territorial disputes with neighbouring Bangladesh, Nepal and Maldives. India currently maintains two manned stations in Antarctica but has made some unofficial territorial claims, which are yet to be clarified.

India is involved in the following border disputes:

Nepal

Kalapani village of India is claimed by Nepal and Susta village in Nawalparasi district of Nepal is claimed by India.[488] The dispute between India and Nepal involves about 75 km2 (30 sq mi) of area in Kalapani, where China, India, and Nepal meet. Indian forces occupied the area in 1962 after China and India fought their border war. Three villages are located in the disputed zone: Kuti [Kuthi, 30°19'N, 80°46'E], Gunji, and Knabe. India and Nepal disagree about how to interpret the 1816 Sugauli treaty between the British East India Company and Nepal, which delimited the boundary along the Maha Kali River (Sarda River in India). The dispute intensified in 1997 as the Nepali parliament considered a treaty on hydro-electric development of the river. India and Nepal differ as to which stream constitutes the source of the river. Nepal regards the Limpiyadhura as the source; India claims the Lipu Lekh. Nepal has reportedly tabled an 1856 map from the British India Office to support its position. The countries have held several meetings about the dispute and discussed jointly surveying to resolve the issue.[489] Although the Indo-Nepali dispute appears to be minor, it was aggravated in 1962 by tensions between China and India. Because the disputed area lies near the Sino-Indian frontier, it gains strategic value.[490]

Pakistan
Indus and tributaries
  • The unresolved Kashmir conflict and the status of Kashmir with India: Pakistan claims that it is a disputed territory with India, meanwhile Pakistan claims its side of the disputed territory and calls it "Azad Kashmir".
  • Dispute over Sir Creek and the maritime boundary regarding the Rann of Kachchh area of southern tip of Sindh.
  • Water-sharing problems with Pakistan over the Indus River (Wular Barrage). (Indus Waters Treaty)
China

Two regions are claimed by both India and China. Aksai Chin is in the disputed territory of Ladakh, at the junction of India, Tibet and Xinjiang, India claims the 38,000-square-kilometre territory, currently administered by China after Sino-Indian War. India also considers the cessation of Shaksam Valley to China by Pakistan as illegal and a part of its territory. Arunachal Pradesh is a state of India in the country's northeast, bordering on Bhutan, Burma and China's Tibet, though it is under Indian administration since 1914, China claims the 90,000-square-kilometre area as South Tibet. Also the boundary between the North Indian states of Himachal Pradesh and Uttarakhand with China's Tibet is not properly demarcated with some portions under de facto administration of India.[491]

Diplomatic relations with India through philately

List of countries commemorating anniversaries of diplomatic relations with India through philately

Year Country Anniversary Milestone Type Sub type Image Date of issue
1972 Soviet Union 25th Anniversary Postal Stationery Unilateral Issue 1972
2000 China 50th Anniversary Postal Stationery Unilateral Issue 1 April 2000
2002 Japan 50th Anniversary Stamp Unilateral Issue 26 April 2002
2002 South Korea 30th Anniversary Stamp Joint Issue 10 December 2003
2003 South Africa 10th Anniversary Stamp Unilateral Issue 16 October 2003
2007 Japan Japan - India Friendship Stamp Unilateral Issue 23 May 2007
2008 Ethiopia 60th Anniversary Stamp Unilateral Issue 30 December 2008
2009 Philippines 60th Anniversary Stamp Joint Issue 16 November 2009
2010 Cuba 50th Anniversary Stamp Unilateral Issue 10 February 2010
2012 Israel 20th Anniversary Stamp Joint Issue 5 November 2012
2012 Russia 60th Anniversary Postal Stationery Unilateral Issue 2012
2013 Peru 50th Anniversary Stamp Unilateral Issue 19 March 2013
2013 Kazakhstan 20th Anniversary Stamp Unilateral Issue 2 July 2013
2014 Bulgaria 60th Anniversary Postal Stationery Unilateral Issue 2014
2014 Myanmar The Five Principles of Peaceful Co-existence by Myanmar, China & India Stamp + Postal Stationery Unilateral Issue 2014
2016 Oman 60th Anniversary Stamp Unilateral Issue 5 April 2016
2017 Moldova 25th Anniversary Postal Stationery Unilateral Issue 2017
2017 Russia 70th Anniversary Postal Stationery Unilateral Issue 2017
2017 Belarus 25th Anniversary Stamp Joint Issue 12 September 2017
2018 Brazil 70th Anniversary Stamp Unilateral Issue 2 October 2018
2018 Bhutan 50th Anniversary Stamp Unilateral Issue 21 February 2018
2018 Georgia 25th Anniversary Stamp Unilateral Issue 14 June 2018
2018 Mauritius 50th Anniversary Stamp Unilateral Issue 18 August 2018
2018 Serbia 70th Anniversary Stamp Joint Issue 15 September 2018
2019 Indonesia 70th Anniversary Stamp
(Personalized)
Unilateral Issue 2019
2019 Colombia 60th Anniversary Stamp Unilateral Issue 28 January 2019
2020 China 70th Anniversary Postal Stationery Unilateral Issue 1 April 2020
2020 Mongolia 65th Anniversary Stamp Unilateral Issue 24 December 2020
2021 Bangladesh 50th Anniversary Stamp Joint Issue 27 March 2021
2021 Germany 70th Anniversary Stamp Joint Issue 10 June 2021
2021 Senegal 60th Anniversary Stamp Unilateral Issue 5 November 2021
2021 Tajikistan 75th Anniversary of India's Independence Stamp Unilateral Issue 16 September 2021
2022 Iraq Iraqi - India relations Stamp Unilateral Issue 17 February 2022
2022 United Arab Emirates 75th Anniversary of India's Independence Stamp Joint Issue 30 June 2022
2022 Belarus 30th Anniversary Postal Stationery Unilateral Issue 3 August 2022

See also

References

Notes

  1. ^ Including all 193 UN member countries and 8 dependencies.

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